to Phigalia. PHIGALIA. 43. Route. 395
near a brook (the ancient Lymax) fed by copious springs and flow¬
ing to the Neda. (The ascent from Drag6i to Bassas takes life hr.;
across the Neda direct to Diavolitzi, ca. 6 hrs., see p. 384.) We next
pass a small waterfall and then Vo'ika, a village surrounded by plane-
trees and fig-trees, and continue to descend towards the Neda, on the
opposite side of which are seen the villages of Mavromati (p. 399)
and the high-lying Kouvelo. Farther to the E., on the wooded Tetrasi,
lies Sirji (p. 384). The path then leads to the W., at no great
distance from the Neda, towards the conspicuous ruins of Phigalia.
We cross several gorges, the last skirting the S.E. side of the an¬
cient city, and then pass the spring of Dound, the water of which
joins the Lymax. The united stream descends to the S. into the
deep bed of the Neda (Bouzikd Potdmi), forming the waterfalls of
Aspra Nerd, 100 ft. in total height.
We enter by the S. door of the old fortress and reach the little
village of Pdvlitza (1520 ft.), which lies embedded in vineyards,
in the S. part of the precincts of the ancient Phigalia (2*/2 hrs.
from the temple ; night-quarters poor).
The mountainous district of Phigalia forms the S.W. corner of Ar¬
cadia, and was several times an object of contention between the Arca¬
dians and the Lacedaemonians. The latter obtained possession of the city
in B.C. 659, but were soon expelled with the help of Oresthasion, another
Arcadian town. The name of Phigalia recurs several times in later wars,
especially during the Achaeo-^tolian contests in B.C. 221. At that time
the avaricious Dorimachos and his robber-band fortified themselves in
the city, quitting it only on the approach of King Philip V. of Macedon
(p. 402). — The cult of the fish-tailed Eurynome, whose temple stood in
a cypress grove at the junction of the Lymax and the Neda, was of very
old standing here, as was also the worship of the black Demeter (p. 396).
On account of their worship of Dionysos Akratophoros, the 'god of unmixed
wine', the Phigalians had the reputation among the Greeks of being intem¬
perate. The best proof of their wealth and of their love of art is the
temple of Bassae.
The ruins of the City Walls are so e'xtensive (about 3 M. in cir¬
cuit) that we may conclude that Phigalia served as a place of re¬
fuge and as a rendezvous for the whole country. The E. and W.
sides are the best preserved, while there are large gaps on the other
two sides. Several gates may be recognized, besides posterns vaulted
by overlapping courses of stone, and there are also numerous square
and round towers, especially on the E. side. The irregularities in
the construction of the walls, which vary in thickness from 6 ft. to
10 ft., point to their erection and restoration at different epochs.
The regular horizontal mode of building prevails, but portions in the
polygonal style occur also, though these are not necessarily the
oldest portions of the wall.
From Pavlitza and the deep-sunken channel of the Neda the site
of the town rises towards the N.E. The market - place must be
looked for in the lower town, at or near the present village, while
the Acropolis, which was crowned with a temple of Artemis Soteira,
lay to the N,E. The latter, on which a ruined chapel now stands, was