PARNASSOS. 5. Route. 157
of the ancients, described by Pausanias, in and around which wild
Bacchic festivals were celebrated. Candles are not required in day¬
light. To the right of the usual entrance is a rough cube of rock
with inscriptions in honour of Pan and the Nymphs. From the cave
we proceed, passing a spring of good water, to (1 hr.) the Kalyvia
Arachovitika (see below).
A pleasant route, diverging to the left from the path to the Korykian
Grotto above Kastri, leads via, (3 hrs. from Delphi) the Kalyvia Kastrika
and past several springs to (3 hrs. more) the prettily situated Epano-Agdr-
yani. Thence we descend rapidly, crossing the foaming Agoranilza, to
(l1/* hr.) Kalo-Agdryani (p. 158), immediately to the S. of which lies the
ruined town of Lilaea. The walls and towers of the citadel are in good
preservation, but the remains of the rest of the town are unimportant.
Several large springs here form the source of the Kephisos. — From Kato-
Agdryani to Gravid (p. 139), 2'/4 hrs.; to Kalo-Souvdla (p. 158), 1 hr.
From Arachova (p. 158; horse about 10 dr.) we ascend in 1 hr.
to the plateau of Livddi. We then pass the village oi Kalyvia Aracho¬
vitika, which lies in the N.E. part of the plain and is inhabited in
summer by the Arachovians. We next ascend two steep pine-clad
slopes, keeping steadily towards the N.W.; when the wood ceases
(2 hrs.) the W. summit of Parnassos appears close to us on the
right. In 20 min. more the path turns sharp to the E., and in another
1/$ hr. we reach two ruined chalets where the night may be spent.
The upper part of the mountain is covered with blocks of stone,
across which we make our way (no path) to the (1 hr.) depression
beneath the (1 hr.) Lykeri or highest summit (marked with a cross).
The highest summit of *Parnassos (8070 ft.; according to others
8270 ft.) rises at the S. end of a ridge stretching from N. to S.,
while the four other peaks, detached from the main peak but con¬
nected with each other, are arranged in a wide semicircle from E. to
W. As the magnificent view is generally clearest just before sunrise
the traveller should start in time to be on the summit at daybreak.
"View. To the E., across the narrow strait which separates Euboea
from the mainland and over the serrated peaks of that island, may be
distinctly seen (in clear weather) the outlines of the N. Sporades, rising
from the wide expanse of sea, which stretches beyond them until it is met
on the horizon by the mountain-lines of the more distant islands of the
Archipelago. — To the H.E. the steep promontory of Athos, the 'sacred
mountain' of the Greeks, is visible. — To the N. rises the usually snow-
clad Olympos, beside which even the Thessalian Ossa and Pelion are dwarfed;
the Gulf of Volo is full in view, while in the immediate foreground are
the Bay of Lamia and the mountains to the N. of the plain of the
Spercheios. As the sun rises the more distant prospect becomes veiled
in mist, but the lakes and rivers in the plains of Phokis and Boeotia, which
before were barely visible,' sparkle and glitter in the sunlight. — To the
S.E. appears the broad-backed Helikon and beyond it the heights on the
Attic Peninsula, the line of which appears to be continued by the row of
islands at its S. extremity. — Nowhere is the importance of the Isthmus
of Corinth so distinctly visible as here, where an extensive survey is ob¬
tained of the two parts of the country which it joins. — The view of
the Peloponnesus is bounded by the mountains on the N. margin of Ar¬
cadia: Kyllene, Chelmos, Erymanthos, and, at the bend of the Corinthian
Gulf, Panachaikon; while beyond, to the 8.W., stretches the open sea. —
Quite different from this wide panorama is the view to the W., embracing
the lofty range of Korax, separated from Parnassos only by the Valley of