146 Route 5. DELPHI. Sacred
intertwining serpents. Pausanias saw the monument in this con¬
dition. In later antiquity it was taken to Constantinople and set up
as an ornament in the Hippodrome, where it is still to be seen (in
the so-called At-Meidan). — None of the numerous other votive
offerings seen by Pausanias in this region can be identified with any
certainty. — Immediately opposite the entrance to the temple and
let into the substructure of its terrace, on the left side of the street,
is the large Votive Altar of Chios. We pass round this to the N. and
reach the slope leading to the entrance of the temple.
Practically nothing of the Temple of Apollo remains erect. We
see merely the foundations, which are constructed chiefly of poros
stone with the upper courses of regularly hewn and carefully clamped
slabs of hard limestone, and here and there fragments of the pave¬
ment of the same material, still in situ. The building was probably a
Doric hexastyle temple with fifteen columns on the sides; it was 190 ft.
in length and 75 ft. in breadth. These proportions were apparently
never altered after the earliest historic erection of the temple; and the
polygonal terrace also has probably remained unchanged. Of other
details we can form an idea only from the reports of the ancients.
The temple was built between 530 and 514 by the Corinthian
Spintharos to succeed an earlier temple burnt to the ground in
548 B.C., which had been erected by the mythical architects Tro-
phonios and Agamedes. The cost was mainly defrayed by voluntary
contributions. The aristocratic family of the Alkmaeonidae, who had
been expelled from Athens by Peisistratos, undertook to complete
the work for the price of 300 talents, perhaps in the hope of securing
the aid of the Delphic deity against their enemies; they, however,
continued the construction in a much more splendid manner than
the original plan had contemplated, one of their most important
alterations being the substitution of Parian marble for limestone in
the construction of the E. facade. Pausanias believed that he had
beheld this building of the Alkmaeonidaj; but it has been ascertained
that the temple was destroyed by an earthquake, probably in 373 B.C.,
and shortly afterwards almost entirely rebuilt, though on the old plan.
Extensive builders' accounts (for 361-313 at least), preserved in in¬
scriptions, place this fact beyond a doubt. Fragments of the earlier temple
were found built into the foundations, as, for example, at the W. front,
Where architectural members of Parian marble, sometimes with the remains
of colour, are to be found. Some of the archaic pediment-figures (p. 154)
were discovered in a, heap of rubbish that had accumulated during the
rebuilding, and it is quite impossible that these could have belonged to
any of the groups that Pausanias describes.
The new edifice of the 4th cent, was completed about 330 B.C. It had
meanwhile undergone continual restoration, which accounts for the diverse
character of many of the fragments of the buiiding. The incursion of the
Gauls left the 'emple uninjured, but it was plundered and burned by the
Thracians in B.C. 83. The destruction on this occasion could not have
been very complete; at all events, its restoration was long postponed.
Antony (42 B.C.) is said to have planned it, Nero to have accomplished it.
A restoration of the temple by Domitian is attested by inscriptions. Gneius
Claudius Leonticus once more restored it at the beginning of the 3rd cent.
A.D. Gradually the final destruction of the temple was prepared by neglect,