Market Gate. ATHENS. 2. Route. 65
The building is 26 ft. in diameter and 42 ft. in height, including
the basement. On the N.E. and N.W. faces were porticos, each sup¬
ported by two Corinthian columns, the capitals of which, of very
simple form, lie on the ground close by. The eight sides of the
structure are turned towards the different points of the compass,
and are adorned with inartistic reliefs representing the various
winds, the names of which are indicated by inscriptions. On the
N., facing the Rue d'Eole, is Boreas, a cross-looking old man in a
heavy cloak; N.E., Kaekias, an old man shaking hailstones out of
a shield; E., Apeliotes, a young man with ears of corn and fruit;
S.E., Euros, an old man enveloped in a mantle against rain; S.,
Notos, the rain-bringer, a young man with a large water-vessel;
S.W., Lips, represented with part of a ship in his hand, perhaps
because this wind was favourable for vessels entering the Piraeus;
W., Zephyr, a handsome youth, with spring-flowers dropping from
the folds of his garment; N.W., Skiron, with a vase. Below the
reliefs are lines of sun-dials. The roof is in the form of a low
octagonal pyramid and consists of slabs of marble held together
by a round keystone; it was originally surmounted by a bronze
Triton, who pointed with his staff to the quarter whence the wind
blew. The semicircular structure on the S. side contained a cistern,
supplied by a covered aqueduct, part of which is still standing.
The water-clock, of which traces are visible on the ground in the
interior, was fed from this cistern, but an exact idea of its working
is now unattainable.
The two ancient arches to the S. of the Tower of the Winds,
and the remains of a third to the E., belong to the buildings with
which this space was covered in the time of the Roman emperors
(see below). At the base of the last - mentioned arch runs the
covered channel for supplying the water-clock.
The lanes ascending to the S. of the Tower of the Winds debouch
on a footpath skirting the N. slope of the Acropolis; the entrance to
the latter is reached in 10 min. by following the path towards the right
(comp. p. 39). Recent excavations have brought to light a quantity of
architectural and sculptured fragments from the old citadel. Tbe founda*
tions have been laid bare also of a building which it is suggested was
the Anakeion, the shrine of the Dioskuri.
The street striking E. from the Tower of the Winds leads to a de¬
pression enclosed by a wall beside which is supposed to have been a
gymnasium from the numerous portrait-heads (Kosmetee; p. 86) and in¬
scriptions found here. Inscriptions naming Diogenes as the founder of the
establishment have led to its being taken for the Diogineion, an institution
of this kind founded in the 3rd cent. B. C. (comp. p. 30).
To the W. of the Tower of the Winds a large paved space sur¬
rounded with colonnades and apartments was partly laid bare by
the Archaeological Society in 1891. This has been recognized as a
Roman Market Place, a bazaar set aside for particular industries.
The so-called Market Gate (toXt) xfjs dtYopas; PL C, 6) formed
its W. entrance. Four slender Doric columns, 26 ft. high and 4ft.
in diameter, still support a massive architrave, with triglyphs and
Baedeker's Greece. 4th Edit. 5