58 Route 2. ATHENS. Acropolis.
town, has recently been discovered to the N.E. of the Erechtheion, near
the foundation of the palace of Erechtheus, and has been surrounded by
a protecting wall.
Operations carried on in 1884-90 have laid bare the foundation-
walls of the so-called Hekatompedon, that was erected on the site
of the palace of Erechtheus in the beginning of the 6th century.
The designation, 'temple measuring 100 feet' (comp. p. 50), is
attested by an inscription. Most of the fragments of architraves,
drums of columns, and capitals in poros stone that are to be
noticed in the N. wall of the Acropolis and on the terrace to the W.
of the Parthenon belonged to this building. It was an amphipro-
style temple and measured 113 by 4372 ft. (= 1053/4 by 41 old
Attic ft.), and was subsequently surrounded by a colonnade by
Peisistratos or the Peisistratidae. The pediments were adorned with
the groups of Gods, Typhon, and Hercules mentioned at p. 60.
After its destruction by the Persians the temple was rebuilt, but
the N. part of the stylobate was occupied by the Porch of the
Maidens. The interior was occupied by a front (E.) space, with
three aisles, and a narrow W. portion, separated from each other
by two chambers. The precise character of this temple has not yet
been ascertained. Dorpfeld regards it as the ancient Temple of Athena
Polias, which remained in use along with the Erechtheion, perhaps
from a religious respect for tradition. According to this theory,
the front portion was the sanctuary proper, which contained the
very ancient figure of the goddess in olive wood (Sjoctvov) and a
perpetually burning light in a golden lamp made by Kallimachos.
The W. portion would represent the place in which the federal
treasure was preserved down to the 4th century. Other authorities,
however, identify the Erechtheion as the 'ancient temple of Athena'
in which the venerable image stood.
The above-mentioned Palace of Erechtheus, the residence of the
Attic kings, is now represented by its foundations to the E. of the
Erechtheion, by some other remains of poros walls beneath the
Hekatompedon, and by column-bases of poros stone lying opposite
the S.E. angle of the Porch of the Maidens and about 5 ft. lower.
The extremely archaic form of the last, with the shaft of the column
embedded in the base, points to the Mycenaean period; and frag¬
ments of Mycenaean vases have, in fact, been found here.
We now return to the Parthenon. In front of the E. facade lie
the fragments of the architrave of a small Circular Temple about
23l/2 ft. in diameter, arranged round the foundations of the temple
to which they belonged. An inscription on the piece that originally
surmounted the entrance announces that this was dedicated by the
'Demos to the Goddess Roma and the Emperor Augustus'. — The
rock-terrace in front of the N.E. corner of the Parthenon is a relic
of the great sacrificial altar of Athena. To the right, between
this point and the unobtrusive Museum (p. 59), several drums of