42 Route 2. ATHENS. Acropolis.
each end, but none on the sides. The columns are of the Ionic
order and 13!/4 ft. in height, including the base and capital. The
architrave consists of three members, above which is a sculptured
frieze (see below). Only a few fragments of the roof have been
found ; it ended on the E. and W. in pediments, which were un¬
adorned with sculptures. The entrance to the cella, which is 13 ft.
9 in. wide and 12 ft. 5 in. deep, is formed by two pillars, formerly
connected with the antae by a railing or balustrade. The statue of
the goddess held a pomegranate in the right hand and a helmet in
the left. The name of Nike Apteros, or the 'Wingless Victory', is
misleading, as the reference is to a special type of Athena, not to
the goddess Nike.
The greater part of the Frieze, which is 86 ft. in length and
171/2 in. in height, has been preserved. Four panels taken to
England by Lord Elgin are here replaced by copies in terracotta.
The others, found by Ross in 1834, occupy their original position,
though the exact arrangement of the reliefs at the sides is pro¬
blematical. On the E. end is an assembly of the gods, with Athena in
their midst. As all the heads and all the special attributes except
Athena's shield are watiting, it is impossible to identify all the di¬
vinities. The two sitting male figures next to Athena are Zeus and
Poseidon. Above Zeus are the remains of a smaller figure supposed
to be Ganymede or Pan (comp. p. 41). At the S. angle are Peitho
(Persuasion) and Aphrodite, the latter holding Eros by the hand.
None of the others have been recognized. — The reliefs at the sides
represent (on the E.) the battles of the Greeks and Persians (or
Amazons?), many of the figures being represented on horseback,
and (on the W.) battles among Greeks. It has therefore been sup¬
posed that the aim of the frieze was the celebration of the Battle
of Plataea, in which the Athenians fought against Persians and
Thebans, or, more generally, the triumph of Athens in the Persian
Wars. If the latter idea be correct, then it is probable that the W.
reliefs represent Plataea, the N. reliefs Marathon, and the S. reliefs
Salamis (corresponding to the geographical positions), while the
E. relief represents Athena pleading the cause of her city in the
council of the Immortals.
The marble cornice at the top of the bastion supporting the
temple was in ancient times surmounted by a Balustrade, which was
adorned on its outer side with reliefs and bore a bronze railing.
The sockets into which the blocks of marble fitted can still be traced
on the W. side immediately below the stylobate of the temple, and
on the N. side as far as the small marble staircase. At this staircase
the balustrade turned to the S. and was prolonged to the N.E. angle
of the temple. It bordered also the S. edge of the bastion, extend¬
ing to the flight of steps in front of the temple. The reliefs pre¬
sented figures of Victory, erecting trophies and leading cattle to the
sacrifice, in the presence of Athena, and probably commemorate the