I. PRACTICAL HINTS.
Railways. The active construction of railways in Greece dates
only from the last twenty years. All the lines are owned by com¬
panies and, with the exception of the Piraeus Railway and the
Larissa Railway, all are narrow-gauge lines. Of the three classes,
the 1st and 2nd vary little in comfort atid only 20 per cent in fare.
The first-class carriages are, however, preferable if ladies are of the
party or if passengers are numerous. Between Athens and Patras
an express train with a so-called 'wagon de luxe' runs three times
weekly. — Each passenger is entitled to 66 lbs. of luggage free.
The luggage is hooked (fee 101.) and a ticket obtained for it.
There are no arrangements for 'left luggage' at the stations. There
is no general time-table, but lists of the trains may be obtained
at the principal stations. Greek railway-time is 35 min. in ad¬
vance of Central Europe time. — Greek railway vocabulary, see
Those who are not conversant with modern Greek should not
attempt to travel in the interior without a Courier or Dragoman.
There are in Athens several thoroughly trustworthy men of this
class, who speak English, French, or Italian. In return for a fixed
inclusive sum of 40-50 fr. per day for each traveller, the courier
takes upon himself the entire cost of the journey. His functions
begin when the party leaves the hotel at Athens and end on its
return to Athens or arrival at any other point agreed upon. He
pays all railway, steamboat, or carriage fares, hires the saddle-
horses and packhorses, provides all meals (including wine, coffee,
etc.), secures accommodation for the night, and is generally respon¬
sible for the comfort of the travellers under his care. On the
longer expeditions, and in all cases where the night has to be
spent in a place without a good Xenodochion (p. xii), the courier
has to provide a mattress and bedding for each memher of the
party; some couriers supply camp-bedsteads. Large parties, in
similar circumstances, should stipulate for the services of a cook.
The route to be followed and the places where the nights are to
be spent should be agreed upon beforehand, with the help of the
suggestions given at p. xxi. The couriers generally dislike any
longer delay en route than is necessary as a rest for the horses, and
it is therefore desirable to make it distinctly understood that the
traveller retains perfect liberty in this respect, so far as consistent
with the general arrangements of the tour. If the tour is prolonged
through the fault of the tourist, he must, of course, pay for the extra
time spent upon it. Half of the sum agreed upon is generally paid
to the dragoman in advance, to enable him to purchase the necessary
stores. The other half should be retained to the end of the journey,
its retention sometimes acting as a spur to the inborn Oriental in¬
dolence of the Greek. The owners of the cottages and khans where
the nights are spent generally look for a gratuity from the traveller
in addition to the settlement of the bill by the courieft