of the Federal authorities (under the superintendence of General
Dufour); scale 1 : 100,000; 25 sheets, each 1 to 2</2 fr. (not
mounted). Heights are given in metres.
An admirable work on a still larger scale is the "Topogra-
phische Atlas der Schxoeiz, on the scale of the original drawings
(flat districts 1 : 25,000, mountains 1 : 50,000), published by the
Federal Staff Office (each sheet 1 fr.).
For Chamonix, Reilly's Map of Mont Blanc, and Mieulet's Massif
du Montblanc( 1 : 40,000).
For the Engadine, Ziegler's Karte desOber- und Unter-Engadin,
in 6 sheets (1 : 50,000).
On well-trodden routes like those of the Rigi, Pilatus, Wen-
gem Alp, Faulhorn, Scheideck, Grimsel, Gemmi, etc., the services
of a guide are unnecessary; but the traveller may engage the first
urchin he meets to carry his pouch or knapsack for a trifling gratuity.
Guides are, however, indispensable for glacier-expeditions. As a
class, they will be found to be intelligent and respectable men,
well versed in their duties, and acquainted with the people and
resources of the country.
The great stations for guides are Interlaken, Lauterbrunnen,
Grindelwald, Meiringen, Martigny, Chamonix, Courmayeur, Zer¬
matt, and Pontresina, while for the principal passes guides are
always to be found at the neighbouring villages. The traveller
should select one of the certificated guides, who have passed an
examination, and are furnished with legal certificates of character
and qualifications. The usual pay of a guide is 0-8 fr. for a day of
8 hrs. ; he is bound to carry 15-18 pounds of baggage, and to hold
himself at the entire disposition of his employers. If dismissed at
a distance from home, he is entitled to lifr. a day for the return-
journey; but he is bound to return by the shortest practicable route.
Although a guide adds considerably to the traveller's expenses,
the outlay will seldom be regretted. A good guide points out many
objects which the best maps fail to indicate; he furnishes interesting
information about manners and customs, battle-fields, and historical
incidents; and when the traveller reaches his hotel, wearied with the
fatigues of the day, his guide often renders him valuable service.
It need hardly be said that a certain amount of good fellowship and
confidence should subsist between the traveller and the man who
is perhaps to be his sole companion for several days, and upon
whose skill and experience his very life not unfrequently depends.
Divided among a party, the expense of a guide is of course
greatly diminished; but where there is much luggage to carry, it, is
olten better to hire a horse or mule, the attendant of which will
serve as a guide on the ordinary routes.