solutely necessary. Whatever poetry there may be theoretically in
'a fragrant bed of hay', the cold night-air piercing abundant aper¬
tures , the ringing of the cow-bells, the grunting of the pigs, and
the undiscarded garments, hardly conduce to refreshing slumber.
As a rule, therefore, the night previous to a mountain expedition
should be spent either an inn or at one of the club-huts which the
Swiss, German, and Italian Alpine Clubs have recently erected
for the convenience of travellers.
Mountaineers should provide themselves with fresh meat, bread,
and wine or spirits for long expeditions. The chalets usually afford
nothing but Alpine fare (milk, cheese, and stale bread). Glacier-
water should not be drunk except in small quantities, mixed with
wine or cognac. Cold milk is also safer when qualified with spirits.
One of the best beverages for quenching the thirst is cold tea.
Over all the movements of the pedestrian the weather holds
despotic sway. The barometer and weather-wise natives should be
consulted when an opportunity offers. The blowing down of the
wind from the mountains into the valleys in the evening, the melt¬
ing away of the clouds, the fall of fresh snow on the mountains,
and the ascent of the cattle to the higher parts of their pasture are
all signs of fine weather. On the other hand it is a bad sign if the
distant mountains are dark blue in colour and very distinct in out¬
line, if the wind blows up the mountains , and if the dust rises in
eddies on the roads. West winds also usually bring rain.
Health. For wounds and bruises zinc ointment is a good remedy.
Another is a mixture of lj-z o%. of white wax, 'fz oz. tallow, 's/t oz. olive
oil, and Wj-z drachms of vinegar of lead, melted together. For inflammation
of the skin, caused by the glare of the sun on the snow, cold cream or
glycerine and starch are recommended. Another remedy is an ointment
of equal parts of almond oil, white wax, and spermaceti.
For diarrhoea 15 drops of tincture of opium and aromatic tincture
mixed in equal quantities may be taken every two hours until relief is
afforded. The homieopathic tincture of camphor is also useful.
1. Maps op Switzerland in One Sheet : ■—-
"Ziegler's neue Karte der Schweiz (1 : 380,000), with explan¬
ations and index. Price 12 fr.
Ziegler's Hypsometr. Karte (1 : 380,000), 4 sheets, 20 fr.
Leuthold's Karte (1:400,000), 10 fr.
Keller's Karte (1 : 450,000), 6fr.
"Leuzinger's neue Karte (1 : 400,000), 8fr.
2. Maps on a Largek Scale : —
Generalkarte der Schweiz (1 : 250,000), published by the gov¬
ernment topographic office, reduced from Dufour's Map, 4 sheets.
The Alpine Club Map of Switzerland, published by R. C. Ni¬
chols (1 : 250,000), 4 sheets, 42s.
"Topographische Karte der Schxveiz, from surveys made by ordor