V.. WALKING TOURS.
Equipment. A superabundance of luggage infallibly increases
the delays, annoyances , and expenses of travel. To be provided
with enough and no more, may be considered the second golden
rule for the traveller. A light 'gibeoiere' or game-bag, which is
far less irksome to carry than a knapsack, suffices to contain all that
is necessary for a week's excursion. A change of flannel shirts and
worsted stockings , a few pocket-handkerchiefs , a pair of slippers,
and the 'objets de toilette' may, with a little practice, be carried
with hardly a perceptible increase of fatigue. A pocket-knife with a
corkscrew, a leather drinking-cup, a spirit-flask, and a piece of
green crape or coloured spectacles to protect the eyes from the glare
of the snow, should not be forgotten. Useful, though less indispens¬
able, are an opera-glass or small telescope, sewing materials, a supply
of strong cord, sticking plaster, a small compass, a pocket-lantern,
a thermometer, and an aneroid barometer. The traveller's reserve
of clothing should be contained in a portmanteau of moderate size.
which he can easily wield himself when necessary, and which may
be forwarded from town to town by post.
The mountaineer should have a well-tried Alpenstock, consist¬
ing of a pole of seasoned ash, 5-6' long, shod with a steel point,
and strong enough, when placed horizontally, with the ends sup¬
ported, to bear the whole weight of the body. For the more difficult
ascents an Ice-Axe. and Rope are also necessary. The best ropes, light
and strong, are made of silk or iManilla hemp. In crossing a glacier
the precaution of using the rope should never be neglected. It
should be securely tied round the waist of each member of the
party, leaving a length of about 10' between each one and his
follower. Ice-axes are made in various forms, and are usually
furnished with a spike at the end of the handle, so that they can
in some measure be used like an Alpenstock.
General Hints. The traveller's ambition often exceeds his
powers of endurance, and if his strength be once overtaxed he will
sometimes be incapacitated altogether for several days. At the
outset, therefore, the walker's performances should be moderate :
and even when he is in good training , they should rarely exceed
10 hrs. a day. When a mountain has to be breasted, the pedes¬
trian should avoid 'spurts', and pursue the 'even tenor of his way'
at a steady and moderate pace (lchi va piano va sano; chi va sano
va lontano'). As another golden maxim for his guidance, the travel¬
ler should remember that — 'When fatigue begins, enjoyment ceases'.
Mountaineering among the higher Alps should not be attempted
before the middle or end of July, nor at any period after a long
continuance of rain or snow. Glaciers should, if possible, be tra¬
versed before 10 a.m., after which hour the sun softens the crust
of ice formed during the night over the crevasses. Experienced
guides are indispensable for such excursions.
The traveller is cautioned against sleeping in chalets, unless ab-