SPLUGEN. 87. Route. 361
the r. the village of Sufers, or Suvers (4672'); opposite the
traveller rise the Pizzo Uccello (8910') and the Einshorn (96490;
to the 1. of Splugen, near the Pizzo Uccello, the Tambohorn
(10,748'); opposite, towards the W., the Zapporthom (9803')
and other mountains, see p. 366.
81/4 M. Splugen (4757') C*Hotel Bodenhaus, R. 2i/2, D. 3—
4 fr., diligence passengers breakfast here), Rom. Spluga (from
Speluja, without corn; or Specula, watch-tower), is the capital
(523 inhab.) of the Rheinwaldthal, the upper part of which valley
resembles that of Ursern. The village is enlivened by the traffic
on the Splugen and Bernardino routes on which it is situated.
It consists of half-a-dozen handsome houses and a number of
smaller ones, with a church. In autumn large herds of cattle
are constantly encountered in this village, on their way to the
Italian markets. At this elevation oats seldom attain maturity.
Numbers of Bergamasque shepherds (comp. p. 323) are also to
be found with their flocks on both slopes of the Splugen. (Ex¬
cursion to the Source of the Hinter-Rhein, see p. 366.)
88. From Splugen to the Lake of Como.
39 M. Diligence twice daily to Chiavenna (9 fr., coupe 10 fr. 30 c.)
in 5>|4 hrs., to Coiico (13 fr. 10, coupe 15 fr. 30 c.) in 8'fe hrs., correspon¬
ding with the steamboats to Como (Swiss diligence as far as Lecco). The
seats on the r. afford the best view.
The road divides near the village of Splugen (4757'); that in
a straight direction leads to the Bernardino (p. 366) , while the
Splugen route crosses the Rhine, ascends in windings (which
may be avoided by short-cuts), and farther up traverses a tunnel
93 yds. in length. The barren Kalkberg (9760') rises above
Splugen in the rear. The road then enters a bleak valley and
ascends on the W. side by numberless zigzags , passing the lonely
Berghaus (6677'), and leading through a long gallery of mason¬
ry, to the summit (6945') of the Splugen Pass (Colmo del Orso),-
3475' below the precipitous Tambohorn, or Schneehorn (10,748',
ascended in 4 hrs. from the pass , unattended with danger, but
guide necessary; the view extends N. to Swabia, S. to Milan,
whence this mountain is visible). To the E. rise the Surettahbrner
(9925'). This narrow ridge forms the boundary between Switzer¬
land and Italy.
The Splugen was one of the Alpine passes with which the Romans
were acquainted. Down to 1818 it was a bridle-path only. Between 27th Nov.
and 4th Dec, 1800, General Macdonald led his division, which was to cover
the flank of the Italian army commanded by Brune, over this pass du¬
ring a severe snow-storm. Whole columns of troops were precipitated into
the abyss of the Cardinell (see below) by avalanches. The Austrian govern¬
ment caused the present road to be constructed in 1819—21, in order to
secure a passage to Lombardy in this direction also, after the completion
of the Bernardino route.
Beyond the summit the road passes the first Cantoniera (refuge)^
and then reaches (3/4 M., 8 M. from Splugen) the Dogana (6247'),