XXXIV XII. CONSTITUTION AND STATISTICS.
of 8, in France and Holland 1 out of 9. Of 100 sq. leagues of land 20 are
pasture, 17 forest, 11 arable, 20 meadow, 1 vineyards, and 31 uncultivated
or occupied bv water, roads, dwellings, etc. r .
Education". The German part of Switzerland possesses three inwer-
sities, those of Btile, Ileni, and /.Uriel,, with 115 professors, 30 private tutors,
and 500 students. French Switzerland possesses three Academies, those of
Geneva , Lausanne, and Neuchatel, with faculties of theology, philosophy,
and jurisprudence.'45 professors, and 370 students. About 70 of the latter
at Geneva are foreigners , chielly French Protestants. The Federal Poly¬
technic at Zurich, founded in IS55, also deserves mention; it possesses a
philosophical facultv and 46 teachers, some of them professors at the uni¬
versity, and is much frequented by foreign as well as native students.
The Army consists of the Bimdes-Auszug (Elite Fcderale) and the Re-
seree, consisting of the able-bodied male population between the ages of
211 and 34; and the Landwe/ir, composed of men, not included in the above
classes, up to their 44th year. To the two first classes belong 105,463 in¬
fantry soldiers, 9227 riflemen, 3006 cavalry, 10,656 artillery, 12 park-com¬
panies with 2870 men, 2332 sappers and miners, etc., forming a total of
133,949. The number of the Landwehr is computed at 67,000. — The
'Cadets' Institute' provides an admirable preparatory training for military
service in Switzerland. This is an arrangement by which the pupils
('cadets') of all the principal schools receive instruction in military tactics,
being provided by government with muskets and cannons (2 and 4-pounders)
for the purpose. On these occasions they wear a uniform; and their
annual reviews, when the cadets of several cantons frequently assemble,
are a source of boundless delight to the embryo warriors.
XIII. Geology of the Alps, f
The term 'Alps' is applied to the vast mountain ranges which extend
from Nice on the Mediterranean Sea towards the N.E. through southern
France, Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Styria, to the Leitha on the Hunga¬
rian frontier. Of these the highest are the Central Alps, situated in Savoy
and Switzerland. They are subdivided into the Pennine Alps (p. 238) ex¬
tending from the Col de Bonbomme (p. 230) to Monte Rosa (p. 262), and
including Mont. Blanc (p. 221) ; the Leponline, or Swiss Alps, extending from
St. Gotthard (p. 82) to the Vogelberg (p. 366); and the llhaetiun Alps, ex¬
tending from the sources of the llinter-lihein (p. 366) over the Bernina
(p. 330) to the Ortler in the Tyrol (p. 347). The central point of these
ranges is the Furca and St. Gotthard group, from which the Alps of the
Valais and Orisons branch in a southerly, and the Bernese and Rhenish Alps
in a northerly direction.
According to their elevation, the Alps are usually divided into the
Higher Alps, or those above the snow-line (8000' on the N. , and 8800' on
the S. side); the Middle Alps, or those between the region of perpetual
snow and the zone of the growth of trees (4500') . and the Lower Alps, or
those between 4500' and 2000' above the level of the sea.
Switzerland consists of three distinct, districts, which differ essentially
in their geological formation. A line drawn from Schaffhausen through
Aarau and Xeuchdlel to the base of Mont D6le, N. of Geneva, separates
two of these districts from each other, viz. the Jlua Ramie from the Swiss
Hill Cocntkt. The latter extends to the base of the Alps, which con¬
stitute the third and most important of these districts.
The formation of the Jura Range consists mainly of strata remarkable
for their richness in organic remains , and known as the 'Jura formation'
in other parts of central Europe also. The subdivisions of this for¬
mation, its stratification, and the remains, principally of shell-fish, which
characterise the different strata, are well known. The position'of the
| The most recent geological researches in Switzerland and special
maps of the Alps and Jura are to be found in the 'Iieilrage zur Geologic
der Schweiz' (published bv Jlalu of Kern at the exuense of Government).