ans, and in 1718 the Turks were again defeated, and compelled by
the Peace of Passarovitz to recognise the supremacy of Austria.
Since that period Transylvania, which was erected into a 'grand
principality' by Maria Theresa, has shared the fortunes of Austria
and Hungary. The rebellion of Nicolaus Urss (Horjah) in 1784 and
the revolutionary years 1848 and 1849 were attended by many evils.
Since 1868 Transylvania has been in legislative and administrative
respects incorporated with Hungary.
Inhabitants. The Magyars, who entered the land as conquerors,
and settled mainly in the N.W. districts.
The Szeklers, also Magyars, who were settled in E. Transylvania
at an unknown date, in order to act as 'Szekler', or guardians of
the frontier, and who at one time erroneously regarded themselves
as descendants of the Huns. The Magyars in Transylvania, includ¬
ing the Szeklers, number about 698,000 souls.
, The Saxons, about 217,000 in number, the descendants of the
German immigrants invited by Geisa II. (p. 392) from the Middle
Rhine, were at first called Teutones, Teutonici Hospites, or Flan-
drenses, but since 1238 have been known as Saxones or Saxons,
as is the case also with most of the mediaeval German immigrants
into Hungary. The Germans of the Burzenland (p. 402) and of the
Nosner Land (p. 397) are also called Saxons.
These three races have from an early period shared the govern¬
ment of the country among them, as being, by virtue of conquest
and colonisation, the sole 'privileged nations'. Transylvania, how¬
ever, is peopled by various other races. Indeed the largest part of
the population consists of Roumanians or Wallachians, of whom
there are no fewer than 1,270,000. These regard themselves as the
lineal descendants of the Roman colonists, but are in reality a mixed
race, made up of Roman and Slavonic elements, which was formerly
settled on the Balkans. Driven thence by the Greek Emperor
Isaac Angelus about 1186, they migrated to the left bank of the
Danube, and, after the power of the Kumans had been broken by the
Teutonic Order, are said to have crossed the mountains and entered
Transylvania. They named themselves Roumanians as members of
the E. Roman Empire (Rum), and had adopted the Greek form
of Christianity during their long subjection to the Greek emperors.
According to another, but untenable view, the Roumanians were
settled on the left bank of the Danube long before the advent of
the Magyars, but were from the first treated by their conquerors and
the foreign colonists as destitute of political rights.
Another element in the population consists of the Armenians,
8400 in number, who first settled in Transylvania about 1668, and
who occupy the towns of Szamos Ujvar, Elisabethstadt, Gyergyo Szt.
Miklos, Dee's, etc. There are also about 88,000 Gipsies in Transyl¬
vania, of whom we hear as early as 1417, when they were governed
by a Voivode of their own. Most of them are nomads ; but at Harom-