76. From Klausenburg to Bistritz..........394
From Dee's to Zilah, Maramaros Sziget, and Nagybanya,
396. — From Sajd-Magyards to Maros Ludas, 397. — From
Bistritz to Kimpolung in the Bukowina; to Rodna, 397.
77. From Klausenburg to Hermannstadt and Kronstadt. . 398
From Torda to Topanfalva and Toroczk6. From Kocsard
to Szasz Regen, 398. — From Szasz Regen to Bistritz and
to Borszek, 399. — From Schassburg to Csik Szereda via
Szekely Udvarhely, 400. — From Reps to Fogaras, 401.
—Excursions from Kronstadt; from Kronstadt to Hosszufalu
and to Zernest, 403. — Mountain Ascents, 404. — From
Kronstadt to Kezdi-Vasarhely, 404. — From Szepsi Szt.
Gyorgy to Borszek, 405.
78. From Arad to Hermannstadt...........405
Vajda Hunyad. From Piski to Petrozseny, 406. — From
Petrozseny to Hermannstadt, 407. — From Karlsburg to
Abrudbanya in the Transylvanian Erzgebirge, 408.
79. From Hermannstadt to Fogaras.........409
Hohe Rinne; Heltau; Michelsberg; Rothenthurm Pass, 410.
— Surul; Negoi; Bullea Valley, 411. — From Fogaras to
80. From Kronstadt to Bucharest via Predeal......412
From Bucharest to Giurgevo and Smarda, 414.
Tbansyxvania, called Erdily by the Magyars, and Ardealu by
the Roumanians (both meaning 'forest-land'), is a mountainous
district of about 21,000 sq. M. in extent, lying between Hungary
on the W. and Roumania on the E. Its German name of Sieben-
biirgen has been variously derived from the first seven 'burgs', or
fortresses, built by the German colonists, or from the seven once
fortified towns of Hermannstadt, Klausenburg, Kronstadt, Bistritz,
Medias, Miihlenbach, and Schassburg; but the most recent re¬
searches have made it more than probable that it is really derived
from Cibinburc ('the fortress on the Cibin'), the original name of
Hermannstadt, which is still named Nagy Szeben by the Hungarians.
History. At the beginning of the Christian era the district
now known as Transylvania formed part of the kingdom of Dacia,
and in 107 A.D., on the subjugation by Trajan of Decebalus, the
last Dacian sovereign, it was incorporated with the Roman province
of Dacia. It remained under Roman sway till 271 A. D., when the
Emperor Aurelian was compelled to withdraw his troops and the
flower of the Roman colonists across the Danube by the Gothic
hordes from the N., which now poured into the country. From this
date down to the beginning of the 12th cent. Transylvania was
the great theatre of battles between the Ostrogoths, Huns, Longo-
bards, Bulgarians, Magyars, Kumans, and other Eastern races
which kept surging towards Western Europe. During the reign of
Ladislaus I., King of Hungary (1078-95), who conquered the Ku-