land was then conquered by the Hungarians (1102), while the re¬
mainder, the later Duchy of Dalmatia, placed itself under the pro¬
tection of the republic of Venice, from which part of it was after¬
wards wrested by the Turks. By the Peace of Karlowitz (1699)
and by that of Passarowitz (1718) the present Dalmatia, with the
exception of the republic of Ragusa (which was deprived of its in¬
dependence by the French in 1806), was secured to Venice. By
the Peace of Campo Formio (1797) it became Austrian, in 1805 it
was attached to the kingdom of Italy, in 1810 to Illyria, and since
1814 it has again belonged to Austria.
Plan of Tour. The best seasons for travelling in Dalmatia are the
months of April and May and from the middle of September to the middle
of November. Travellers who wish to see the coast only are recommended
to take the Austrian Lloyd or Hungarian-Croatian steamers, or the railway
from Sebenico to Spalato, or the diligence from Ragusa to Castelnuovo.
The interior may be explored with the aid of the railways from Spalato
and Sebenico to Knin, and from Metkovic to Mostar and Sarajevo (see R. 82).
Diligences also ran from Zara to Knin; from Spalato to Sinj; from Knin
to Verlika, Sinj, and Metkovic; from Ragusa to Trcbinje, and on several other
routes. Carriages (with one horse 3-4 fl. per day) and saddle-horses are
procurable almost everywhere.
The following short tour is recommended to hurried travellers: —
(1st Day) Steamer from Fiume or Trieste to Pola; (2nd) Zara; (3rd) Sebenico
and Excursion to the Kerka Falls; (4th, 5th) Spalato, Salona, and Trail;
(6th, 7th) Ragusa, Ombla, Cannosa; (8th) Castelnuovo, Cattaro; (9th, 10th)
to Cetinje and back; (11th, 12th) Return to Fiume or Trieste.
Travellers desirous of visiting Bosnia from Dalmatia proceed from
Ragusa to Metkovic (p. 299). A visit to the islands of Lista, Me1 leda, La-
gosta, and others takes much time, but boats cross to Curzola and Lesina
almost daily, and to Brazza still oftener. For travellers to these and
other places the Prospetto degli arrivi e partenze (Steamboat, railway, and
diligence time-tables, 10 kr., sold at, Zara, Spalato, etc.) is indispensable.
The circular tours (10-20 days) in Dalmatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina,
by special steamers from Trieste, annually organized by Messrs. Thos. Cook
& Son in April, May, and September, will be found convenient by some trav¬
ellers. Inclusive return-fares from London, about 25-462. Detailed pro¬
grammes may be obtained at any of Messrs. Cook's offices.
Inns. Travellers who do not expect too much will, on the whole, find
the inns of Dalmatia very tolerable, though at many the food is indifferent
and the cleanliness insufficient. The night may sometimes be spent on
board one of the Austrian Lloyd or Hungarian-Croatian steamers; but on
arriving at a port in the evening the passenger is not allowed to sleep on
board unless he is going on with the steamer next day. Dinner li/i, supper
1 fl. (Second-class passengers are admitted to the deck of the first class.)
Passport desirable, though not indispensable.
Police. The gensdarmes, respectable and trustworthy, are often
Germans, seldom Dalmatians. Information may be obtained at their
stations. The public safety is now well provided for.
Language. Italian will carry the traveller along the whole coast; Ger¬
man also, even as far as Montenegro, is fairly well understood. In the in¬
terior, on the other hand, it is difficult to get on without some knowledge
of the Servian-Croatian languages (practically one and the same Slavonic
dialect), though Italian is often understood. An idea of the pronunciation
and a few of the commoner words are given at p. 416; but, as Italian is
chiefly spoken on the coast, tbe strict Slavonic spelling is often modified.
Slaps. The best is that of the Military Geographical Institute (Vienna,
Lechner's university book-shop), on a scale of 1:75 000; each section 50 kr.
— Stieler's Handatlas (new ed.) sheets 211 and 51, on a smaller scale, also good.