VI. GALICIA AND THE BUKOWINA.
47. From Vienna to Cracow.............273
Salt-mines of Wieliczka, p. 278.
48. From Cracow to Lemberg and Czernowitz.....279
From Przemysl to Chyrow, 280. — From Lemberg to Stryj;
to Odessa, 281. — From Czernowitz to Bucharest, 283.
49. From Stanislau to Dzieditz via Stryj, Neu-Zagorz, and
From Sucha to Podgorze, 284. — From Saybusch to Sil-
General Remarks. Galicia, the N.E. province of Austria, slopes down
in terraces on the N. side of the Carpathians and contains many marshy
plains. Unprotected towards the N. and N.E., it has late springs, short
summers, and long and severe winters. It is rich in corn, wood, salt,
and petroleum, but poor in industries, which are chiefly in the hands of
the Jews (660,003 out of a population of 6 millions), to whom most of the
inns, taverns, and shops belong. The horse-dealers and carriage-owners
are always Jews. They differ in their dress and the mode of wearing their
hair from the other inhabitants, who despise them but are financially
dependent on them. Of the other inhabitants, who are almost exclusively
Slavonic, about one-half are Poles, who dwell chiefly in the W. part of
Galicia, the other half are Ruthenians, who occupy the E. part; but Polish
is the official and the literary language of the whole province. The
Ruthenians (Russinians, Russniaks) differ materially from the Poles in lan¬
guage, in religion, and in political views. In culture they are considerably
inferior; their churches and houses, especially in the country districts,
are miserably poor and squalid.
The Bukowina was severed from Moldavia, that is from Turkey, in
1786, and united with Austria. Unlike Galicia, it is hilly and wooded,
and also differs greatly from it ethnographically. The inhabitants (about
600,000) are chiefly Ruthenians, Roumanians, Germans, Poles, and Ar¬
menians. The political administration is quite separate from that of
Galicia, and the official language is German.
Two railways intersect Galicia from W. to E.: the N. railway, from
Oswiecim to Tarnopol connects the chief towns; the S. line, or 'Galician
Transversal Railway', leads from Bielitz to Czernowitz, skirting the N.
slope of the Carpathians, and is far superior in point of scenery. The
traveller who wishes to explore the country thoroughly should therefore
go by one of these lines and return by the other (RR. 48, 49). The most
picturesque of the railways which cross the Carpathians to Hungary is
that from Stryj to Munkacs (p. 360).
Inns. There are good hotels at Cracow, Lemberg, Przemysl, and Czerno¬
witz. In the smaller towns and in the country, the inns are generally
very primitive and dirty, while in the villages as a rule the only house
of call is the brandy-shop.
47. From Vienna to Cracow.
256>/> M. Railway (Kaiser-Ferdinands-Nordbahn) in 83/4-13i/2 hrs. (ex¬
press to Oderberg in 572, thence to Cracow in 3 hrs.); fares 13 fl. 60, 9 fl.,
4 fl. 50 kr.; express 20 fl. 25, 13 fl. 50, 6 fl. 55 kr. The through-carriages
from Vienna to Cracow are marked 'Podgdrze'.
From Vienna to (1711/2 M.) Oderberg, see R. 46. The line now
runs to the E., near the Prussian frontier. Country uninteresting.
Baedeker's Austria, 8th Edition. Jg