I. Language. Money.
Language. For travellers purposing to explore the remoter
parts of Austria, a slight acquaintance with German is very desirable;
but those who do not deviate from the beaten track will generally
find that English or French is spoken at the principal hotels and the
usual public resorts. A few remarks on the Hungarian and Slavonic
languages, which may be useful to travellers in the E. and S. prov¬
inces of Austria, are given on pp. 314 and 416.
Money. The new Austrian monetary unit is the Crown (Krone)
= 100 Heller. These new coins, however, are still comparatively
rare, and reckonings are still universally made in the old Florins
(Gulden) and Kreuzers (1 florin = 100 kreuzer = 2 crowns; 1 kreu-
zer = 2 heller). The silver and paper florins are of the same value
(about Is. 9<2. or 42 cents), but the latter are being gradually with¬
drawn. Large sums are paid in government notes (6 and 50 fl.) or
bank-notes (10, 100, and 1000 fl.). The average rate of exchange
for a sovereign (or a German gold piece of 20 marks) is 12 fl., and
for a Napoleon 93/a fl. Those who desire to convert considerable
sums into Austrian notes should be careful to employ respectable
bankers or money-changers; and they will effect the exchange to
better advantage in the principal towns of Austria itself than at
Munich or other towns in Germany. Those who travel with large
sums should be provided with circular notes (of 101. each, issued by
the London and other bankers), in preference to banknotes or gold,
the value of the former being recoverable in case of loss.
Travellers who propose to visit Servia will find a short account
of the Servian currency under Belgrade at p. 372. The Roumanian
currency is similar, francs being called Lei and centimes Bani. —
Money in Bosnia, see p. 416; in Montenegro, see p. 308.
The expense of a tour in Austria depends of course on a great
variety of circumstances. It may, however, be stated generally that
travelling in this country, except the large cities, is less expensive
than in most other parts of Europe. The pedestrian of moderate
requirements, and tolerably proficient in the language, may, by avoid¬
ing the beaten track as much as possible, succeed in limiting his
expenditure to 6-8s. per diem; but the traveller who prefers driving
to walking, frequents hotels of the highest class, and requires the
services of guides and commissionnaires, must be prepared to expend
at least 25-30s. daily.