doorway is under a porch; but porches are rare in Norman churches,
though there is a fine one at Southwell minster.
During the Norman period we are no longer confined to
churches and their appurtenances as subjects of architectural study.
We have a store of castles and some houses to refer to. It is per¬
haps hardly needful to say that at no period of good art was there
any special style for churches or for any other class of buildings.
The different purposes of a church, a castle, a house, a barn, will
cause great differences of form, outline, proportion, among the
different classes of buildings: but the style, strictly so-called, the
details, the ornamental forms, are always the same. A military
building is likely to have less ornament than an ecclesiastical one ;
but those parts of it which are enriched will be enriched in the
same way. Thus we have mentioned the hall of Oakham castle.
This, like many other early halls and monastic infirmaries, has
columns and arches which might just as well have stood in a church.
The castle, a novelty of Norman introduction, now became a chief
feature in the architecture of England as of other countries. The
usual type of the Norman castle has for its main feature the massive
rectangular keep, which, without changing its essential character,
may either swell into such vast buildings as those of London and
Colchester or sink into the peel-tower of the borders of England and
Scotland, which are simply the Norman keep on a very small scale.
Pre-eminent among the Norman castles of England is the Con¬
queror's own fortress planted to keep London in awe. The Tower of
London, built by Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, shows how the plain
and early Norman style could be wrought into perfectly finished
forms in military as well as in ecclesiastical work. Its most in¬
teresting part, the chapel, unites both characters. It is plain but
not rude, with columns and an apse in the thickness of the wall.
This great building may be compared with the small tower which
Gundulf built for himself at Mailing in Kent. The castle of
Rochester is not his work, but that of Archbishop William Corbeil
(1126-1139); it is an excellent example of much the same style
as Bishop Roger, a great advance in ornament, but with much of
the massiveness of the elder style living on. And it is now in a
castle rather than a church, in the remains of his castle at Sher¬
borne that we can best study the work of Roger himself. Another
type of castle, less usual during this period than the square tower,
and less easily lending itself to architectural forms, was the Shell
kepe, a single wall, commonly polygonal. This is chiefly found when
the castle was built on a mound of earth which might not have
borne the weight of the heavy square tower.
Houses, strictly so called, are still rare, but there are a few
examples. Some of the best are in towns, as at Lincoln and Bury
Saint Edmunds, where they bear the name of Jews, and some have
thought that stone houses in towns at this date were first built by