xxx WALES AND THE WELSH LANGUAGE.
The present sovereign of Great Britain is —
Queen Victoria, born 24th May, 1819; ascended the throne in 1837;
married, on 10th Feb., 1840, her cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-
Gotha (d. 14th Dec, 1861).
The children of this marriage are: —
(1) Victoria, born 21st Nov., 1840; married to the Crown Prince of
Germany (afterwards Emp. Frederick), 25th Jan., 1858.
(2) Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Heir Apparent to the throne,
born 9th Nov., 1841; married Alexandra, Princess of Denmark, 10th March,
(3) Alice, born 25th April, 1843; married to the Grand-Duke of Hessen-
Darmstadt, 1st July, 1862; died 14th Dec, 1878.
(4) Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, born 6th Aug., 1844; married the Grand
Duchess Marie of Russia, 23rd Jan., 1874.
(5) Helena, born 25th May, 1846; married to Prince Christian of Schles-
wig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, 5th July, 1866.
(6) Louise, born 18th March, 1848; married to the Marquis of Lome,
eldest son of the Duke of Argyll, 21st March, 1871.
(7) Arthur, Duke of Connaught, born 1st May, 1850; married Princess
Louise Margaret, daughter of Prince Frederick Charles, nephew of the
German Emperor, 13th March, 1879.
(8) Leopold, Duke of Albany, born 7th April, 1853; married Princess
Helen of Waldeek-Pyrmont, 27th April, 1882; died 28th March, 1884.
(9) Beatrice, born 14th April, 1857; married Prince Henry of Batten-
berg, 23rd July, 1885.
VIII. Wales and the Welsh Language.
The formerly independent Principality of Wales (Welsh Cymru),
with an area of 7363 sq. M. and (1881) 1,360,513 inhab., has been
an integral and undisputed part of the British monarchy since 1535.
South Wales was conquered by the Norman French in the reigns
of William II. (1087-1100) and Henry I. (1100-1135), and North
Wales was subdued by Edward I. (1276-84). Wales is by far the
most mountainous part of South Britain, fully one-quarter of its sur¬
face being incapable of cultivation, and it contains, especially in its
N. half, a great abundance of picturesque scenery (comp. R. 40).
In all essential particulars travelling in Wales is similar to trav¬
elling in England, and the tourist requires no special directions.
Except in the remoter districts English is everywhere understood,
but a few data in regard to the Welsh language are given below
to aid in the pronunciation of proper names. — The national
Welsh costume is now rare.
Language. Welsh (Cymraeg) is a branch of the great family of
Celtic languages to which the Armoric of Brittany, Cornish, Manx,
and the Gaelic of Scotland and Ireland also belong. Its orthography
is at first somewhat startling to Saxon eyes, but with the exception
of one or two characteristic sounds, the difficulty is not so form¬
idable as it appears on the surface.
Most of the consonants of the Welsh alphabet are pronounced as in
English; but / is pronounced like v, while <; and g are always hard. Dd
is pronounced like th in thus, th like th in think, ff like /, and ch like
the German ch (guttural). The sound of //, perhaps the most difficult for
a stranger, is produced by forming the mouth as if to pronounce / and
then blowing. This found bears the same relation to / as / does to v.