OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY. **!*
House of Stdaet (1603-1714).
1603-1625. James I., King of Scots, and son of Mary Stuart, unites by
his accession the two kingdoms of England and Scotland. Persecution
of the Puritans and Roman Catholics. Influence of Buckingham. Gun¬
powder Plot (1605). Execution of Sir Walter Raleigh (1618).
1625-1649. Charles I. imitates his father in the arbitrary nature of
his rule, quarrels With Parliament on questions of taxation, dissolves it
repeatedly, and tyrannically arrests five leading members of the House
of Commons (Hampden, Pym, etc.). Rise of the Covenanters in Scotland.
Long Parliament. Outbreak of civil war between the King and his ad¬
herents (Cavaliers) on the one side, and the Parliament and its friends
(Roundheads) on the other. The King defeated by Oliver Cromwell at
Marston Moor and Naseby. He takes refuge in the Scottish camp, but is
betrayed to the Parliamentary leaders, tried, and executed at Whitehall.
1649-1653. Commonwealth. The Scots rise in favour of Charles II.,
but are defeated at Dunbar and Worcester by Cromwell.
1653-1660. Protectorate. Oliver Cromwell now becomes Lord Pro¬
tector of England, and by his vigorous and wise government makes Eng¬
land prosperous at home and respected abroad. On Cromwell's death
(1658), he is succeeded by his son Richard, who soon resigns, whereupon
Charles II. is restored by General Monk. John Milton, the poet; Thomas
Hobbes,the philosopher; George Fox, the founder of the Quakers.
1660-1688. Charles II. General amnesty proclaimed, a few of the re¬
gicides only being excepted. Arbitrary government. The Cabal. Wars
with Holland. Persecution of the Papists after the pretended discovery of
a Popish Plot. Passing of the Habeas Corpus Act (1679). Wars with the
Covenanters. Battle of Bothwell Bridge. Rye House Plot. Charles a pen¬
sioner of France. Names Whig and Tory come into use. Dryden and
Butler, the poets; Locke, the philosopher; John Bunyan.
1685-1688. James II., a Roman Catholic, soon alienates the people
by his love for that form of religion, is quite unable to resist the invasion
of William of Orange, escapes to France, and spends his last years at
St. Germain. Sir Isaac Newton ('Principia', 1687).
1688-1702. William III. and Mary II. William of Orange, with his
wife, the eldest daughter of James II., now ascends the throne. The
Declaration of Rights. Battles of Killiecrankie and The Boyne. Grand
Alliance against Louis XIV. Peace of Ryswick (1697). First Partition
Treaty (1698). Second Partition Treaty (1700). Act of Settlement (1701).
1702-1714. Anne, younger daughter of James II., completes the fusion
of England and Scotland by the union of their parliaments. Marlborough's
victories of Blenheim, Ramilies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet, in the Spanish
War of Succession. Capture of Gibraltar. The poets Pope, Addison, Swift,
Prior, and Allan Ramsay.
Hanoverian Dynasty (1714 et seq.).
1714-1727. George I. succeeds in right of his descent from James I.
Rebellion in Scotland (in favour of the Pretender) quelled. Sir Robert
Walpole, prime minister. Daniel Defoe.
1727-1760. George II. Rebellion in favour of the Young Pretender,
Charles Edward Stuart, crushed at Culloden (1746). Canada taken from the
French. William Pitt, Lord Chatham, prime minister; Richardson, Fielding,
Smollett, Sterne, novelists; Thomson, Young, Gray, Collins, Gay, poets.
1760-1820. George III. American War of Independence. War with
France. Victories of Nelson at Aboukir and Trafalgar, and of Wellington
in Spain and at Waterloo. British conquests in India. The younger Pitt,
prime minister; Edmund Burke; Charles Fox; Shelley and Keats, poets;
Adam Smith's 'Wealth of Nations' (1776).
1820-1830. George IV. Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill. Daniel
O'Connell. The English aid the Greeks in the War of Independence. Vic¬
tory of Navarino. Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Soulhey.
1830-1837. William IV. Abolition of slavery. Reform Bill.