OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
Good of France, taken prisoner by the Black Prince, dies in captivity
(1364). After the death of the Black Prince, England loses all her French
possessions, except Calais. Order of the Garter founded. Movement against
the corruption of the clergy, headed by the reformer John Wycliffe. House
of Commons holds its meetings apart from the House of Lords.
1377-1399. Richard II. Rebellion of Wat Tyler, occasioned by in¬
crease of taxation. Victory over the Scots at Otterburn or Chevy Chase.
Henry of Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, leads an army against the King,
takes him captive, and according to popular tradition, starves him to
death in Pontefract Castle. Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry.
House op Lancaster (1399-1461).
1399-1413. Henry IV., Bolingbroke, now secures his election to the
crown, in right of his descent from Henry III. Outbreak of the nobility,
under the Earl of Northumberland and his son Percy Hotspur, is quelled
by the victory of Shrewsbury, at which the latter is slain (1403).
1413-1422. Henry V. renews the claims of England to the French
crown, wins the battle of Agincourt (1415), and subdues the N. of France.
Persecution of the Lollards, or followers of Wycliffe.
1422-1461. Henry VI. is proclaimed King of France at Paris. The
Maid of Orleans defeats the English and recovers French possessions.
Outbreak of the civil contest called the '■Wars of the Roses', between the
houses of Lancaster (red rose) and York (white rose). Henry becomes
insane. Richard, Duke of York, grandson of Edward III., lays claim to the
throne, joins himself with Warwick, the 'King-Maker', and wins the battle
of Northampton, but is defeated and slain at Wakefield. His son Edward,
however, is appointed King. Rebellion of Jack Cade.
House of York (1461-1485).
1461-1483. Edward IV. wins the battles of Towton, Hedgley Moor, and
Hexham. Warwick takes the part of Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI.,
and forces Edward to flee to Holland, whence, however, he soon returns
and wins the victories of Barnet and Tewkesbury. Henry VI. dies sud¬
denly in the Tower (1471). Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence, is
said to have been drowned in a butt of malmsey.
1483. Edward V., the youthful son of Edward IV., is declared ille¬
gitimate, and murdered in the Tower, along with his brother, by his
uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, who takes possession of the throne as —
1483-1485. Richard III., but is defeated and slain at Bosworth by Henry
Tudor, Earl of Richmond, a scion of the House of Lancaster.
House of Tudor (1485-1603).
1485-1509. Henry VII. marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., and
so puts an end to the Wars of the Roses. The pretenders Lambert Sim-
•nel and Per kin Warbeck.
1509-1547. Henry VIII., married six times (to Catherine of Aragon,
Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Cath¬
erine Parr). Battles of the Spurs and Flodden. Separation of the Church
of England from that of Rome. Dissolution of monasteries and perse¬
cution of the Papists. Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell, all-power-
•ful ministers. Whitehall and St. James's Palace built.
1547-1553. Edward VI. encourages the Reformed faith.
1553-1558. Mary I. causes Lady Jane Grey, whom Edward had ap¬
pointed his successor, to be executed, and imprisons her own sister Eliza¬
beth. Marries Philip of Spain, and restores Roman Catholicism. Perse¬
cution of the Protestants. Calais taken by the French (1558).
1558-1603. Elizabeth. Protestantism re-established. Flourishing state
of commerce. Mary, Queen of Scots, executed after a long confinement in
England (1587). Destruction of the Spanish 'Invincible Armada' (1588).
Sir Francis Drake, the celebrated circumnavigator. Foundation of the
East India Company. Golden age of English literature: Shakespeare, Bacon,
Spenser, Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, Marlowe, Drayton.