OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY
1035-1040. Harold Harefoot, illegitimate son of Canute) usurps the
1040-1042. Hardicanute, son of Canute. — The Saxon line is restored
in the person of —
1042-1066. Edward the Confessor, who makes London the capital of
England, and builds Westminster Abbey. His brother-in-law and success¬
1066. Harold, son of Earl Godwin, loses his kingdom and his life at
the Battle of Hastings, where he opposed the invasion of the Normans,
under William the Conqueror.
Norman Dynasty (1066-1154).
1066-1087. 'William the Conqueror, of Normandy, establishes himself
as King of the English. Introduction of Norman (French) language and
1087-1100. William II., surnamed Rufut, after a tyrannical reign, is
accidentally shot by Sir Walter Tyrrell while hunting (p. 83).
1100-1135. Henry I., Beauclerc, defeats his elder brother Robert, Duke
of Normandy, at the battle of Tenchebrai (1106), and adds Normandy to the
possessions of the English crown. He leaves his kingdom to his daughter
Matilda, who however, is unable to wrest it from —
1135-1154. Stephen, of Blots, grandson of the Conqueror. David, King
of Scotland, and uncle of Matilda, is defeated and taken prisoner at the
Battle of the Standard (1138). Stephen appoints as his successor Matilda's
son, Henry of Anjou or Plantagenet (from the planta genista or broom,
the badge of this family).
House or Plantagenet (1154-1399).
1154-1189. Henry II. Strife with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canter¬
bury, regarding the respective spheres of the civil and ecclesiastical powers.
The Archbishop excommunicates the King's followers, and is murdered
by four knights at Canterbury (1170). Conquest of Ireland (1170-72). Robin
Hood, the forest outlaw, flourishes.
1189-1199. Richard I., Coeur de Lion, takes a prominent part in the
Third Crusade, but is captured on his way home, and imprisoned in
Germany for upwards of a year. He carries on war with Philip II.
1199-1216. John, surnamed Lackland, is defeated at Bouvines (1214) by
Philip II. of France, and loses Normandy. Magna Charta, the groundwork
of the English constitution, is extorted from him by his Barons (1215).
1216-1272. Henry III., by his misrule, becomes involved in a war
with his Barons, headed by Simon de Montfort, and is defeated at Lewes.
His son Edward gains the battle of Evesham, where De Montfort is slain.
Hubert de Burgh defeats the French at sea. Provisions of Oxford (1258).
Commons summoned to Parliament (1265). Roger Bacon, the philosopher.
1272-1307. Edward I., Longshanks, overcomes the Welsh under Lle¬
wellyn, and completes the conquest of Wales. The heir-apparent to the
English throne thenceforward bears the title of Prince of Wales. Robert
Bruce and John Baliol struggle for the crown of Scotland. Edward espouses
the cause of the latter (who swears fealty to England), and overruns Scot¬
land. The Scots, led by Sir William Wallace, offer a determined resistance,
Wallace executed at London (1305). The Scots defeated at Falkirk and
Melhuen, and the country subdued. Establishment of the English Par¬
liament substantially in its modern form (1295).
1307-1327. Edward II. is signally defeated at Bannockbum by the
Scots under Robert Bruce the younger, and is forced to retire to England
(1314). The Queen and her paramour Mortimer join with the Barons in
taking up arms against the King, who is deposed, and shortly afterwards
murdered in prison.
1327-1377. Edward III. defeats the Scots at Halidon Hill and Neville's
Cross. Lays claim to the throne of France, and invades that country,
thus beginning the Hundred Years' War between France and England.
Victories of Sluys (naval; 1340), Crtcy (1346), and Poitiers (1356). John the