226 Route 30. OXFORD. Cathedral.
attended by 250-300 undergraduates. The 'Fellows' are here called
'Students'. The handsome gateway, called Tom Gate, was begun
by Wolsey,but the upper part of the tower was added by Sir Chris¬
topher 5Vren in 1682. The bell ('Great Tom') in the latter weighs
7t/2 tons, and every night at five minutes past nine it peals a curfew
of 101 strokes, indicating the number of students on the foun¬
dation. The Great Quadrangle, or Tom Quad, is the largest and
most imposing in Oxford. In the S.E. corner is the fine fan-
vaulted entrance to the *Hall (adm. 2d.), a beautiful room with a
ceiling of carved oak, 115 ft. long, 40 ft. wide, and 50 ft. high. It
contains numerous good portraits, including those of Wolsey and
Henry VIII. by Holbein, Queen F«lizabeth by Zucchero, John Locke
by Lely, Gladstone by Millais, two by Gainsborough, and three by
Reynolds. Good old glass in the S. oriel window.
The Kitchen, the oldest part of Wolsey's building, is an inter¬
esting specimen of an old English kitchen; it is reached by a stair¬
case descending from the door of the hall.
The *Cathedral (PL 4) of the diocese of Oxford, originally the
church of the priory of St. Frideswide (p. 222), serves at the same
time as the chapel of Christ Church. In its present form it is
mainly a late-Norman or Transitional building of the second half
of the 12th century. The Lady Chapel was added in the 13th,
and the Latin Chapel in the 14th century. The lower part of the
tower (144 ft. high) is Norman, but the belfry-stage and the octa¬
gonal spire (perhaps the oldest in England) are E. E. Wolsey
removed half of the nave to make room for his college quadrangle;
and the cathedral as it now stands is the smallest in England. Daily
services are held at 10 a.m. and 5p.m.; adm., free, 10-1 and2.30-4.30.
The building has been skilfully restored by Sir G. G. Scott.
Interior. The most striking feature in the N.vve is the curious
arrangement of the arches, which are double, the lower ones springing
from corbels attached to the massive piers. These last are alternately cir¬
cular and octagonal. The pointed arches of the clerestory are the
nearest approach to the E.E. style in the main part of the church. The
timber roof is generally ascribed to Wolsey. The pulpit and organ-screen
are Jacobean. The most interesting tombs in the nave those of Bishop Berke¬
ley (d. 1753) and Dr. Pusey (d. 1882). The beautiful W. window of the S.
aisle was executed by Morris, from the design of Burne Jones. — A good
general view of the interior is obtained from the platform in the S.
Transept. In the E. w,all of the aisle of this transept is an old stained-glass
window, from which the head of St. Thomas of Canterbury, now replaced
by plain white glass, is said to have been struck by a Puritan trooper.
— The Choir resembles the nave in general character, though probably of
somewhat earlier date. The beautiful groined roof, with its graceful
pendants, is also attributed to Wolsey, but Sir G. G. Scott considers it
still earlier. The E. end, with two round-headed windows surmounted
by a circular one, is intended to reproduco as far as possible the original
Norman arrangement. The 'Windows at the E. ends of the choir-aisles
are also by Burne Jones. The Stalls and the elaborate Episcopal Throne
(a memorial of Bishop Wilberforce) are modern. The S. choir-aisle con¬
tains a bust of the late Duke of Albany (d. 1884).
Adjoining the N. aisle of the choir is the Ladt Chapel, an E.E. ad¬
dition of the middle of the 13th cent., occupying a very unusual position.