xxvi OUTLINE OF'ENGLISH HISTORY.
mouth and Exeter; or he may skirt the S. coast to Southampton, Brighton,
and Ramsgate, running thence to London through Canterbury and Maid¬
stone. Should the traveller elect to go northward from Liverpool, he may
visit the English Lakes, Carlisle, the Land of Burns, the Scottish Lakes, the
Highlands, and so to John o' Groafs House; returning by Aberdeen, Perth,
Edinburgh, Newcastle, York, Cambridge, etc. The Continental cyclist, land¬
ing at Dover, Harwich, or any of the other usual steamboat harbours,
mav also begin his riding at once.
' The cyclist who contemplates even the shortest tour in Great Britain
will find it decidedly advantageous to become a member of the Cyclists'
Touring Club, which now possesses nearly 25,000 members. It has a re¬
sident Chief Consul in the United States (Mr. F. W. Weston, Savin Hill,
Boston) and also a Chief Consul for Continental Europe (Mr. S. A. Stead,
19 Tabley Road, Holloway, London, N.). The entrance fee of this club is
Is., and the annual subscription 2s. 6c/. American cyclists who wish to
become members may apply to Mr. Weston. Should they arrive in Eng¬
land without having been enrolled, they should communicate with the se¬
cretary (Mr. E. R. Shipton, 139 Fleet St., London, E.C.), who will send
them a provisional certificate of membership on payment of an additional
fee of 2s. 6cJ. The new member should then at once buy the Handbook
of the C. T. C. (Is.; sold to members only). This contains a list of 2000
hotels throughout the country, which charge members of the Club a re¬
duced tariff; the addresses of nearly 1000 consuls (i.e. local resident wheel¬
men, who are pledged to help their fellow-members by information and
advice); the names of over 1000 cycle repairers; and much other useful
information. The Club has published a Road Book of the Continent and
is now engaged in preparing a similar work for Great Britain and Ireland.
Pending the publication of the latter, the Chief Consuls supply road-routes
gratuitously to members who apply for them.
VII. Outline of English History.
The following sketch of English history may prove useful for
reference in connection with the interesting historical associations
which crowd upon the traveller at every step.
Roman Period (B.C. 55-A. D. 445).
B.C. 55 54. Of Britain tefore its first invasion bv Julius Ciesar in
B. C. 55 there is no authentic history. Ca?sar repeats his invasion in B. C.
54, but makes no permanent settlement.
43 A. D. Emp. Claudius undertakes the subjugation of Britain.
78-85. Britain, with part of Caledonia, is overrun bv the Roman general
Agricola, and reduced to the form of a province.
412. Roman legions recalled from Britain by Honorius.
445. The Britons, deprived of their Roman protectors, are unable to
resist the attacks of the Picts, and summon the Saxons, under Hengist and
Horsa, to their aid.
Axglo-S,\.xox Pkkiod (445-1066).
445-5L-5. The Saxons, re-inforeed by the Angles, Jutes, and other
Germanic tribes, gradually overcome Britain on their own account, until
the whole country, with trifling exceptions, is divided into the seven
kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy (51-7,). To this period belong the semi-
mythical exploits of King Arthur and his knights.
Christianity rc-introduced by St. Augustine (597). The Venerable Beds
(d. 735). Caetliiion (about 08u).
827. England united into one kingdom under Egbert.
835-871. Contests with the Danes ami Normans, who repeatedly invade
871-901. Alfred the Great defeats the Danes, and compels them to
make peace. Creates navy, establishes militia, revises laws, re-oruanises
insiitutions, is a patron of learning, and himself an author.