19th Oct. Passage of the Beresina. — Wellington's victory at
1813. Battles of Liitzen, Dresden, Leipzig, Hanau, etc.
1814. Battles of Brienne, Montmirail, Laon, Arcis sur Aube,
and Paris. Entrance of the allies into Paris, 31st March. Ab¬
dication of the Emperor, 11th April. His departure for Elba,
4th May. First Treaty of Paris, 30th May.
The frightful scenes of devastation enacted during the Revolution,
especially in 1793, were at least beneficial in sweeping away the
overgrown conventual establishments, which occupied the best sites
and one-third of the area of the city. Under the Directory the
museum of the Louvre was begun. Vast improvements were effected
under Napoleon; the mean buildings which formerly occupied the
Place du Carrousel were demolished; the N. gallery between the
Louvre and the Tuileries and the handsome Rue de Rivoli were
begun; new streets, spacious markets, three bridges, several quays,
canals, etc. constructed; numerous fountains and monuments
erected ; churches restored and embellished; the Bourse and other
public edifices founded.
1814. Restoration. Louis XVIII. proclaimed King.
1815. Napoleon's return from Elba. Battles of Ligny and
Waterloo. Second entrance of the allies into Paris, 7th July.
Napoleon banished to St-. Helena, where he died (5th May, 1821).
1823. Spanish campaign.
1824. Charles X.
1830. Conquest of Algiers. Revolution of July. Louis Phi¬
lippe elected King, 7th Aug.
1848. Revolution of February. Republic. Sanguinary con¬
flicts in Paris, 23rd to 26th June. Louis Napoleon elected
1851. Dissolution of the Assemblie Ligislative, 2nd Dec.
Civic improvements progressed comparatively slowly under
Louis XVIII. and Charles X. Under Louis Philippe they were
resumed with fresh vigour. Many handsome new streets were
opened, churches and public edifices completed, vast works un¬
dertaken for the drainage of the city , new bridges and quays con¬
structed, gardens and squares laid out, etc., at an outlay exceed¬
ing 100 million francs.
1852. Napoleon III., Emperor, elected by universal suffrage
(plibiscite), 2nd Dec.
1854. War with Russia. Crimean campaign.
1859. War with Austria. Battle of Solferino. Peace of
16th Sept., summer months. — Each month had 30 days and consisted of
3 decads, weeks being abolished. At the close of the year there were
5 jours comple'nienlitires, 17th Sept. to 21st. — The republican cah-ndar
was discontinued by a decree of bth Sept., ISO").