English fleet defeated at Rhi, 1627; La Rochelle taken from the
Huguenots. The Palais Cardinal (now 'Royal') begun by
Richelieu, and the Luxembourg by Marie de Me'dicis. New bridges,
quays, and streets constructed. Jardin des Plantes laid out.
Louis XIV. , 1643, under the regency of his mother, Anne
of Austria. Ministers: Mazarin (d. 1661), Louvois (d. 1691), and
Colbert (d. 1683). Generals: Tureimc (d. 1675), Conde'(d. 1686),
Marshal Luxembourg (d. 1695).
War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Conde'
defeated the Spaniards at Rocroy, 1643, and at Lens in Holland
in 1645. Submission of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, 1659.
Louis married Maria Theresa, 1660.' Part of Flanders con¬
quered, 1667. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1668. — War with
Holland, 1672. Peace of Nymwegen, 1678. Strasbourg occupied,
1681. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 16S5. Devastation of
the Palatinate. The French fleet defeated by the English at
La Hogue, 1692. Peace of Ryswyk, 1697.
Spanish war of succession , 1701; the French frequently de¬
feated by Marlborough and Prince Eugene. Peace of Utrecht and
During this reign upwards of eighty new streets and thirty-
three churches were constructed. Hotel des Invalides, Observatory,
and the colonnade of the Louvre completed. College Mazarin,
Gobelins, triumphal arches, etc. begun. Fortifications converted
Louis XV., 1715, under the regency of the Duke of Orleans.
Polish and Austrian wars of succession. Seven years' war with
England. Successes of Frederick the Great and Ferdinand Duke
of Brunswick against the French; battles of Rossbach, Crefeld,
The Pantheon, Ecole Militaire, Palais du Corps Legislatif,
Hotel des Monnaies, and many other important buildings were
erected during this reign. Jardin des Plantes extended.
Louis XVI., 1774.
1789. Revolution. Assembly of the States General at Versailles,
5th May. Formation of the National Assembly, 17th June. Storming
of the Bastille, 14th July. Confiscation of ecclesiastical pro¬
perty, 2nd Nov.
1790. National fete in the Champ de Mars.
1791. The Emigration. The king and royal family escape
from Paris , but are intercepted at Varennes, 20th June.
1792. War with Austria, 20th April. Storming of the Tuile¬
ries , 10th Aug. The king arrested , 13th Aug. The National
Convention opened, and royalty abolished, 21st Sept. Republic
proclaimed, 25th Sept.
1793. Louis XVI. beheaded , 20th Jan. Republican reckoning