John II. (Le Bon) , 1350 ; defeated and taken prisoner by the
English at Maupertuis, 1356. Peace of Bretigny, 1360.
Charles V. (Le Sage), 1361, founded the Royal Library, the
Bastille, and the Palais des Toumelles. The city extended and
re-fortified. The English expelled by Bertrand du Guesclin.
Charles VI. , 1380 , became insane twelve years afterwards.
The French defeated by Henry V. of England at Azincourt,
1415. Paris occupied by the English, 1421.
Charles VII., 1422. The siege 0i" Orleans raised by Joan
of Arc, 1429. The English expelled. Paris devastated by famine
Louis XI. , 1461. Introduction of printing and establishment
Charles VIII., 1483; conquered Naples, 1495.
Louis XII., :Le pere du peuple', 1498, first king of the
younger branch of the House of Valois , conquered Milan and (in
alliance with the Spaniards) Naples. Having quarrelled with his
Spanish allies, he was defeated by them on the Garigliano in 1503,
on which occasion Bayard was present. The League of Cambrai
formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main¬
land of Italy. The Venetians conquered at Agnadello, 1509.
The French defeated at Rarenna, 1512.
Francis I. , 1515. The city was probably more consider¬
ably alt.-red and improved in this than in any of the preceding
reigns. Many new edifices were erected, churches repaired, and the
fortifications extended. Palace of the Louvre and Hotel de Ville
begun. Wars with the Emperor Charles V. ; Francis defeated and
taken prisoner at Paria, 1525.
Henri II., 1547, husband of Catherine de Midicis, acciden¬
tally killed at a tournament (p. 62). Final expulsion of the
Francis II., 1559, husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland.
Charles IX., 1560. The Tuileries erected. Massacre of
St. Bartholomew, 24th August, 1572.
Hknri III., 1574. brother of his two predecessors, assassi¬
nated at St. Cloud by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar.
Henri IV., 1589, first monarch of the House of Bourbon,
conquered the Roman Catholic, League at Arques in 1589. and at
lvry in 1590, became a Roman Catholic in 1593, besieged and
captured Paris in 1594. Sully his minister. Religious toleration
granted by the Edict of Nantes. Henry divorced from Margaret
of Valois in 1599, married Marie de Me'dieis the following year;
assassinated by Ravaillac in 1610. The metropolis greatly embellished
during this reign. The Pont Neuf completed, additions made
to the Louvre and Tuileries.
Louis XIII., 1610, banished his mother Marie de Medicis,
who died at Cologne in 1642. Richelieu his minister (d. 1642).