was secularised during the first revolution. Portions of the
buildings still exist. On the E. side is situated a 'Mount of Olives'
(Jardin des Oliviers), containing singular representations, to which
pilgrimages, especially in September, are frequently undertaken.
The heights of Montmartre witnessed the final struggle be¬
tween the French and the Prussian and Russian allies on March
30th, 1814, and also played an important part during the sieges
of 1870—71. On March 18th, 1871, the insurgent soldiers, who
had assassinated the generals Thomas and Lecomte, took possession
of the cannon on Montmartre, over which a body of the national
guard kept watch. Thus commenced the Communist rebellion
of March 18th to May 28th, 1871, a period of horrors almost
without parallel in the chequered annals of Paris. The insurgents
were at length dislodged from their position here by the victorious
troops on May 24th, and the latter in their turn directed the
batteries of Montmartre against the insurgents who occupied Les
Buttes Chaumont (p. 134) and Pere Lachaise (p. 123). The
last shots were fired hence on the evening of the 27th, and on
the following day the last sparks of the insurrection were ex¬
The Tour de Solferino (admission 20 c.; a cafe on the ground-
floor) , a small tower on the E. side of the hill, affords a fine
*panorama of the huge sea of houses in the city, to the N.,
the plain of St. Denis and the course of the Seine, and to the
E. the valley of the Marne with Vincennes in the foreground.
At the W. base of Montmartre, between the Barriere Blanche and
the Barriere de Clichy, extending over disused gypsum quarries,
is situated the
*Cemetery of Montmartre, the oldest of the burial-grounds
of modern Paris. Although far inferior to Pere Lachaise in the
number of its monuments and illustrious names, it well merits
To the r. in the first path, *three monuments to Polish re¬
fugees, 'exules Poloni memoriae suorum'. The visitor now returns
hence, and enters the main path. Here, to the r., is the family-
vault of Fr. Guil. Kalkbrenner (A. 1849), the well-known com¬
Farther on, at the corner to the 1., the tomb of the Cavaignac
family, of which the most eminent members were the author
Godefroy (A. 1845), and the general Eugene (A. 1857), president
of the republic from June 28th to Oct. 20th, 1848.
Beneath the cross in the rotunda repose the republicans who
fell at the time of the coup d'e'tat in Dec, 1852, a spot always
decorated with numerous wreaths.
Farther on in the principal path: Baron Meneval, 'secretaire
intime de l'empereur Napoleon'.
On a slight eminence at the extremity of this avenue is situated