Bastille, and the Palais des Tournelles. The city extended and
re-fortified. The English expelled by Bertrand du Guesclin.
Charles VI., 1380, became insane twelve years afterwards.
The French conquered by Henry V. of England at Azincourt,
1415. Paris occupied by the English, 1421.
Charles VI., 1422. The siege of Orleans raised by Joan
of Arc, 1429. The English expelled. Paris desolated by famine
Louis XL, 1461. Introduction of printing and establishment
Charles VIII., 1483; conquered Naples, 1495.
Louis XII., 'Le p'ere du peuple', 1498, first king of the
younger branch of the House of Valois, conquered Milan and (in
conjunction with the Spaniards) Naples. Having quarrelled with his
Spanish allies, he was defeated by them on the Garigliano in 1503,
on which occasion Bayard was present. The League of Cambrai
formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main¬
land of Italy. MMt Venetians conquered at Agnadello, 1509.
The French def^HF at Ravenna, 1512.
Francis I. ,tto15. The city was probably more consider¬
ably altered and improved in this than in any of the preceding
reigns. Numerous new edifices were erected, ehurches repaired, and
fortifications extended. Palace of the Louvre and Hotel de Ville
commenced. Wars with the Emperor Charles V. Francis defeated
and taken prisoner at Pavia, 1525.
Henry II., 1547, husband of Catherine de Medicis, acciden¬
tally killed at a tournament (p. 40). Final expulsion of the
Francis II., 1559, husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland.
Charles IX., 1560. The Tuileries erected. Massacre of
St. Bartholomew, August 24th, 1572.
Henry III., 1574, brother of his two predecessors, assassi¬
nated at St. Cloud by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar.
Henry IV., 1589, first monarch of the House of Bourbon,
conquered the Roman Catholic League at Arques in 1589, and at
Ivry in 1590, became a Roman Catholic in 1593, besieged and
captured Paris in 1594. Sully his minister. Religious toleration
granted by the Edict of Nantes. Henry divorced from Margaret
of Valois in 1599, married Marie de Medicis the following year;
assassinated by Ravaillac 1610. The metropolis greatly embellished
during this reign. The Pont Neuf completed, additions made
to the Louvre and Tuileries.
Louis XIII., 1610, banished his mother Marie de Medicis,
who died at Cologne in 1642. Richelieu his minister (d. 1642).
English fleet defeated at Rhe, 1627; La Rochelle taken from the
Huguenots. The Palais Cardinal (now 'Royal') commenced by