architecture are still abundant; turrets and corner-pavilions, lofty
chimneys, round and elliptical arches, all occur in conjunction
with columns and pilasters. But the style of Henri II. has already
passed wholly into the region of the classical orders, albeit with a few
modifications in the earlier French taste. A calm and measured
regularity has taken the place of the former gay fancy.
The number of Italian Sculptors engaged in France at the be¬
ginning of the 16th century is almost larger than that of the architects.
Girolamo delta Robbia embellished the Chateau de Madrid (now-
destroyed) on the confines of the Bois de Boulogne; Cellini, who
sojourned in France in 1537 and again in 1540-45, there chiselled
his great Nymph of Fontainebleau (now in the Louvre) ; and there
were others only less famous. The three Juste (property Betti)
were Florentines, who flourished at Dol about 1500 but afterwards
succeeded to the inheritance of Michel Colombe at Tours. Their
chief work is the tomb of Louis XII. at St. Denis, with two re¬
presentations of the deceased (nude recumbent figure below; kneel¬
ing figure clad in ermine above), bas-reliefs, and allegorical figures
at the corners. This arrangement was the model for many later
tombs. But the three greatest sculptors of the French Renaissance
aTe Frenchmen — Pierre Bontemps, Jean Goujon, and Germain
Pilon. To Bontemps, less well-known than his contemporaries
but certainly not inferior to them, is due the exquisite urn contain¬
ing the heart of Francis I., and perhaps also the execution of
most of the tomb of that king at St. Denis, designed by Phil, de
l'Orme. No lov^r of art will forget Goujon's bas-reliefs or his
charming nymphs on the Fontaine des Innocents at Paris, whose
slender forms with their masterly drapery harmonize so wonderfully
with the space allotted to them. His caryatides in the Louvre aTe
perhaps the most beautiful works in all modern art. The famous
'Diana' in the Louvre is especially characteristic of his style as well
as of the taste of the period. Finally we may mention the 'gisant'
on the monument of Cardinal de Bre'ze at Rouen, as a wonderfully
realistic youthful work by Goujon. The magnificent counterpart of
this monument (which was executed by Jean Cousin) is the adja¬
cent tomb of the two Cardinals d'Amboise , the bewilderingly rich
architecture of which was designed by Rolland Leroux (1520-25).
Pilon's name is inseparably connected with the tomb of Henri II.
at St. Denis, though he was not the only artist employed upon it.
The poignantly realistic 'gisants', and the powerful kneeling bronze
statues of the royal pair are equally admirable. The kneeling figure
of the chancellor Birague and the Dead Christ in the LouvTe are
also full of character, whereas the three Cardinal Virtues supporting
the urn with the heart of Henri II. are distinctly inferior to similar
figures by Goujon.
Amongst the productions of industrial art at this period our at¬
tention is specially aroused by the Enamels and the Fayencb. The