IV. GENERAL REMARKS,
sacrifices that it had cost. The blessings of peace appeared doubly
desirable after their long absence. At this epoch liberal politicians
achieved their greatest triumphs, French literature and art used their
utmost endeavours to resume their world-wide sway, and French
society exhibited itself in its most refined and amiable aspect. In
more than one of the sciences, Paris led the way.
The July Monarchy (1830-48) continued the same general
course, though with less success. Louis-Philippe resumed with new
ardour the completion of the modern Paris begun by Napoleon. Over
100 million francs were spent in his reign on new streets, churches,
public buildings, bridges, sewers, squares, etc.
But under Napoleon IH. (President of .the Republic in 1848,
Emperor 1852 - 70), Paris underwent a transformation on a scale
of magnificence hitherto unparalleled. Napoleon appointed Georges
Eugene Haussmann (1809-91) to be Prefect of the Seine, and under
his directions dense masses of houses and numbers of tortuous streets
were replaced by broad boulevards, spacious squares, and palatial
edifices. A beginning was made with the great arteries of traffic
running N. and S.: the Boulevards de Strasbourg and de Sebastopol
(p. 84) on the right bank, and the Boulevards du Palais (p. 255)
and St. Michel (p. 263) in the Ue de la Cite and on the left bank.
These were followed by the Boulevards Haussmann (p. 215) and
de Magenta (p. 85) on the right bank, the Boul. St. Germain (p. 293)
on the left bank, the prolongations of the Rues de Rivoli (p. 167),
de Turbigo, de Lafayette, etc., and the laying out of the magnificent
quarter around the park of the Champs-Ely sees. The Louvre (p. 92)
and the Biblioth'eque Nationale (p. 195) were enlarged; the Holies
Centrales (p. 188) and the Tribunal de Commerce (p. 258) were built;
and the Opera (p. 79) was begun. Haussmann was ably seconded
by the engineer Ad. Alphand (1817-91), who was entrusted with the
care of the parks and public promenades. To Alphand's skill are due
the laying out of the Bois de Boulogne (p. 230), the Bois de Vin-
cennes (p. 250), the Pare Monceau (p. 217), the Buttes-Chaumont
(p. 235), and many of the square-gardens.
The enormous municipal debt incurred by these extensive altera¬
tions was farther increased by the war of 1870-71 and by the excesses
of the Commune. This sufficiently accounts for the slackened activity
under the Third Republic. Yet Paris was not content with ad¬
equately completing works already begun, such as the Opera; import¬
ant new streets were laid out, the Hotel de Ville (p. 169) was rebuilt
on an enlarged scale, and the Palais du Trocadero (p. 225), the new
Sorbonne (p. 274), and many educational structures were erected.
The Pare de Montsouris (p. 329), many new squares, and the im¬
portant undertaking of the Metropolitain (p. 28) also date from this
period. Finally, the public parks and gardens have been converted
into a kind of museum of modern art, by the erection in them of the
Sculptures purchased by the city at the annual exhibitions (p. 41).