IV. GENERAL REMARKS.
Metiers', or trades-regulations, edited by Etienne Boyleau in 1258.
Of the great buildings of that period little now remains but a few
religious edifices (Notre-Dame, Ste. Chapelle, Tour St. Jacques).
Towards the close of the middle ages the adverse fortunes of the
French kings frequently compelled them to give up their residence
in the capital; but the municipal element continued all the more
steadily to develop itself, and, as the preponderating characteristic,
gave birth to that 'esprit parisien', which found expression in French
For a brief period, with the beginning of the Renaissance at the
end of the 15th cent., the arts threatened to desert Paris; numerous
lordly chateaux were built in the provinces, especially in Touraine.
But by the middle of the 16th cent, the capital had already regained
all its prestige in this domain. The Louvre, the Tuileries, and the
Hdtel de Ville, the three master-pieces of the second Renaissance and
the centres of political life, date from this period, as do also the Palais
du Luxembourg and the Palais-Cardinal (the present Palais-Royal).
The zenith of the monarchy under Louis XIV. (p. xvii) was natur¬
ally favourable to the extension and embellishment of the capital. If
the king was in a position to say 'l'Etat c'est moi', Paris no less truly
absorbed all the vital forces of the nation. Many of the most charac¬
teristic monuments of Paris date from this reign, including the Colon¬
nade of the Louvre, the Place Vendome, the Hotel des Invalides, and
upwards of thirty churches. Characteristic of this period also are the
great 'hotels' or mansions of the nobility, which proudly stand back
from the streets and transport into the very heart of the city some of
the majestic isolation of a country-seat. Aiming at no exterior effect,
but all the more sumptuous and luxurious within, they stand in ab¬
solute contrast with the Italian palazzi (e.g. Hotel Lambert, p. 262).
— The Pantheon and the Palais-Bourbon are among the chief build¬
ings of the 18th century.
During the Revolution and the period immediately succeeding
it (1789-1804) the unquestioned predominance of Paris, received a
temporary check from the political disorganisation of the day; but
under the Directory (1795), and particularly during the First
Empire (1804-14), the city speedily regained its pre-eminence. The
artistic and other booty of the Napoleonic campaigns was devoted to
the embellishment of the capital, while the emperor sought to distract
the restless political spirit of the Parisians by a feverish activity in
the construction of public edifices. He began the N. wing uniting
the Louvre and the Tuileries, laid out the Rue de Rivoli, and built the
Bourse. Under his orders new squares, bridges, and quays were every¬
where begun, though most of them were left unfinished.
During the somewhat inglorious period of the Restoration
(1814-30), Paris enjoyed a golden era of prosperity. France had
entered upon the enjoyment of the rich heritage of glory bequeathed
by the Revolution and the First Empire, without feeling the heavy