IV. GENERAL REMARKS.
of many of the scientific institutions of Paris. It also contains sev¬
eral of the chief libraries.
The principal Communes Annexjsbs, or outlying districts within
the fortifications, but not incorporated with the city till 1860, are
the following, enumerated from E. to W. : Bercy, carrying on an ex¬
tensive wine and export trade; Charonne, Menilmontant, Belleville,
La Villette, La Chapelle, and Montmartre, the principal quarters of
the working classes and the seat of the largest workshops; Les Ba-
tignolles, with the studios of numerous artists and many handsome
private houses (on the side next the Park of Monceau); Passy and
Auteuil, with their villas; Grenelle, with iron foundries and chemical
works; Vaugirard, Montrouge, etc., inhabited by persons of moderate
means, small shopkeepers, and artisans, and containing numerous
The Administration of Paris is shared between a Prefect of tlit
Seine, appointed by government, and a Town Council (Conseil Mu¬
nicipal), elected by the citizens. The annual budget amounts to
350,000,000 fr. (upwards of 10,000,000*.). The city is subdivided
into twenty Arrondissbmbnts, separated from each other by the
principal arteries of traffic, and each governed by a Maire and two
councillors: 1. Louvre; 2. Bourse; 3. Temple; 4. Hotel de Ville;
5. Pantheon ; 6. Luxembourg; 7. Palais - Bourbon ; 8. Elysee;
9. Opera; 10. Enclos St. Laurent; 11. Popincourt; 12. Reuilly;
13. Les Gobelins; 14. Observatoire; 15. Vaugirard; 16. Passy;
17. Les Batignolles-Monceaux; 18. Montmartre; 19. Les Buttes-
Chaumont; 20. Menilmontant.
The Fortifications of Paris, constructed in 1840-44, were
greatly extended after 1871. The inner Enceinte is 21 M. in length,
and is strengthened by bastions, a moat, and a glacis. A series of
seventeen Forts Detaches, at different distances from the city, up to
a maximum of 2 M., forms a second enceinte, while a second line
of forts, at a greater distance from the ramparts, has also been con¬
structed on the heights commanding the valley of the Seine. The area
includod within this elaborate system of fortifications is 400 sq. M.
in extent, and besides the capital itself embraces the seven towns
of Versailles, Sceaux, Villeneuve-St-Georges, St. Denis, Argenteuil,
Enghien, and St. Germain-en-Laye. — The garrison of Paris consists
of 40 regiments of infantry, 12 of cavalry, and 5 of artillery.
As a rule the Parisian may be said to invite and deserve the
confidence of travellers. Accustomed by long usage to their pre¬
sence, he is skilful in catering for their wants, and recommends
himself to them by his politeness and complaisance. In return the
traveller in France should accustom himself to the inevitable 's'il
vous plait', when ordering refreshments at a cafe" or restaurant, or
making any request. It is also customary to address persons even of
humble station as 'Monsieur, 'Madame', or 'Mademoiselle'.