1871. Battle of St. Quentin, 19th Jan. Capitulation of Paris,
28th Jan. The Germans enter Paris, 1st March.
Communard Insurrection, 18th March. Seat of government
removed to Versailles, 20th March. Second siege of Paris, 2nd
April. — 21st May. Upwards of 238 public and other edifices were
destroyed by the Communards. — Peace of Frankfort, 10th May.
— Thiers, chief of the executive since 17th Feb., appointed Presi¬
dent of the Republic, 31st August.
1873. Death of Napoleon III., 9th Jan. — Marshal Macmahon
appointed president instead of M. Thiers, 14th May. Final evac¬
uation of France by the German troops, 16th Sept. — Macmahon's
tenure of the presidency fixed at seven years, 20th Nov.
1875. Republican Constitution finally adjusted, 25th Feb.
1877. Reactionary ministry of May 16th (Broglie-Fourtou). —
1878. Third Universal Exhibition.
1879. Jules Grevy becomes president in place of Marshal Mac¬
mahon. The Chambers of the Legislature return to Paris.
1881. Expedition to Tunis. — 1882-85. Expeditions to Ton-
quin and Madagascar. — 1885. Peace with China, 9th June. Peace
with Madagascar, 17th Dec. — 1887. Sadi Carnot becomes pre¬
sident in place of M. Gre"vy, 3rd Dec. — 1889. Fourth Universal
Exhibition. — 1894. Assassination of President Carnot, by the
Italian Caserio, 24th June. J. Casimir Perier elected president two
days later. — 1895. Resignation of Casimir Perier and election of
Felix Faure to the presidency, Jan. 15th and 17th. Expedition
to Madagascar and annexation of that island. —1896. Nicholas II.,
Czar of Russia, visits Paris. — 1897. The president visits St.
Petersburg. — 1899. Death of M. Faure (Feb. 17th). M. Emile
Loubet succeeds him (Feb. 18th). Dreyfus Trial. — 1900. Fifth
Universal Exhibition. — 1901. Nicholas II. revisits France. — 1902.
M. Loubet visits St. Petersburg. — 1903. Edward VII. of England
visits Paris. M. Loubet visits London.
IV. General Remarks on Paris.
Paris, the capital and by far the largest town of France, is situ¬
ated in 48°50' N. lat. and 2°20' E. long, on the Seine, which flows
through it from S.E. to S.W., after receiving its principal affluent,
the Marne, just above the city. The height of Paris above the sea-
level varies from 80 ft. at Grenelle, to 420 ft. at Montmartre. The
city covers an area of about 20,000 acres, of which 1760 are occu¬
pied by the river. As early as the beginning of the 13th cent, the
population was nearly 200,000; in 1675, under Louis XIV., it
reached 540,000; in 1789 it was 600,000; in 1821, 763,000; in
1836, 868,000; in 1852, 1,053,262; in 1860, after the inclusion
of the faubourgs, 1,525,255; in 1870, 1,825,274; and in 1896,
2,536,834. The last census (1901) showed a population of 2,714,068,