armies repulsed in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Return of
Bonaparte to France.
1797. Victory at Rivoli, 14th Jan. Taking of Mantua, 2nd
Feb. The Austrians commanded by Archduke Charles, at first
victorious, are defeated by Bonaparte. Peace of Campo Formio,
17th Oct. Change in the Directory on 18th Fructidor (4th Sept.).
1798. Bonaparte in Egypt. Victory of the Pyramids, 21st July.
Defeated by Nelson at the battle of the Nile, 1st Aug.
1799. Bonaparte invades Syria. Acre attacked. Victory of
Aboukir, 25th July. Fall of the Directory, 9th Nov. (18th Brumaire).
Establishment of the Consulate, 24th Dec. Bonaparte First Consul.
1800. Bonaparte's passage of the St. Bernard, 13-16th May.
Victories at Piacenza, Montebello, Marengo, and Hohenlinden. At¬
tempt to assassinate Napoleon at Paris, 23rd Dec.
1801. Peace of Luneville with Germany, 9th Feb. Concordat,
1802. Peace of Amiens with England, 27th March. Bonaparte
(with Cambace'res and Lebrun) elected Consul for life, 2nd Aug.
First Empire. 1804. Napoleon I. proclaimed emperor by the
Senate, 18th May ; crowned at Notre-Dame by Pope Pius VII., 2nd
1805. Renewal of war with Austria. Capitulation of Vim, 17th
Oct. Defeat of Trafalgar, 21st Oct. Battle of Austerlitz, 2nd Dec.
Peace of Pressburg, 26th Dec.
1806. Establishment of the Rhenish Confederation, 12th July.
War with Prussia. Battles of Jena and Auerstadt, 14th Oct. Entry
into Berlin, 27th Oct. Continental blockade.
1807. War with Russia and Prussia. Battles of Eylau and Fried-
land. Treaty of Tilsit, 8th July. Occupation of Lisbon, 30th Nov.
1808. War in Spain, in order to maintain Joseph Bonaparte on
the throne. Code Napoleon.
1809. Conquest of Saragossa. Renewed war with Austria.
Battle of Eckmuhl. Vienna entered, 13th May. Battles of Aspern,
or Essling, and Wagram. Peace of Vienna, 14th Oct. Abolition of
the temporal power of the pope.
1810. Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise, daughter of
Francis II. of Austria, 11th March. Napoleon at his zenith.
1812. Renewed war with Russia. Battles of Smolensk and Bo¬
rodino. Moscow entered, 15th Sept. Retreat begun, 19th Oct.
Passage of the Beresina. — Wellington's victory at Salamanca.
1813. Battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Grossbeeren, Dresden, Katz-
bach, Kulm, Leipzig (16-18th Oct), Hanau, etc.
1814. Battles of Brienne, La Rothiere, Montmirail, Laon, Arcis-
sur-Aube, and Paris. The Allies enter Paris, 31st March. Abdica¬
tion of the Emperor, 11th April. His arrival at Elba, 4th May.
The frightful scenes of devastation enacted during the Revolu¬
tion, especially in 1793, were at least beneficial in sweeping away ■