the Ecole Militaire, the Palais Bourbon, the Afmf, and other impor¬
tant buildings ; and. the Jardin des Plantes was extended.— Voltaire,
Rousseau, and Diderot the most influential writers.
Louis XVI. (1774-93), married to Marie Antoinette, daughter
of Francis I. and Maria Theresa, 1770. American War of In¬
dependence against England, 1777-83. Exhaustion of the finances
of France; Vergennes, Turgot, Necker, de Calonne, de Brienne,
and Necker (a second time), ministers of finance.
1789. Revolution. Assembly of the States General at Ver¬
sailles, 5th May. Their transformation into a National Assembly,
17th June. Oath of the Jeu de Paume (p. 342), 20th June.
National GuaTd established, 13th July. Storming of the Bastille,
14th July. The 'Femmes de la Halle' at Versailles, 5th Oct. Con¬
fiscation of ecclesiastical property, 2nd Nov.
1790. Fete de la Fe"de*ration in the Champ-de-Mars (p. 304).
1791. The Emigration. The royal family escapes from Paris, but
is intercepted at Varennes, 22nd June. Oath to observe the Con¬
stitution, 14th Sept. Assemblee Legislative.
1792. War with Austria, 20th April. Storming of the Tuileries,
10th Aug. The king arrested, 11th Aug. Massacres in Sept.
Cannonade of Valmy against the Prussians, 20th Sept. The Na¬
tional Convention opened, and royalty abolished, 21st Sept.
First Republic proclaimed, 25th Sept. Custine enters Mayence,
21st Oct. Battle of Jemappes against the Austrians, 6th Nov. Con¬
quest of Belgium.
1793. Louis XVI. beheaded, 21st Jan. Republican reckoning
of time introduced, 22nd Sept. t. Reign of Terror. The queen
beheaded, 16th Oct. Worship of Reason introduced, 10th Nov.
1794. Robespierre's fall and execution, 27th July (9th Ther-
1795. Conquest of Holland by Pichegru. Bonaparte commander
of the troops of the Convention against the Royalists, 4th Oct.
(13th Vendemiaire). Directory established, 27th Oct.
1796. Bonaparte's successes in Italy (Montenotte, Millesimo,
Lodi, Milan, Mantua, Castiglione, Bassano, and Arcole). French
+ The year had 12 months: Vendemiaire (month of the vendange,
or vintage) from 22nd Sept. to 21st Oct., Brumaire (brume, fog) 22nd Oct.
to 20th Nov.,and Frimaire (frimas, hoar-frost) 21st Nov. to 20th Dec, were
the three autumn-months; — Nivose (neige, snow) 21st Dec. to 19th Jan.,
Pluviose (pluie, rain) 20th Jan. to 18th Feb., and Ventose (vent, wind)
19th Feb. to 20th March, winter - months; — Germinal (germe, germ),
21st March to 19th April, Flor^al (ffeur, flower) 20th April to 19th May,
and Prairial (prairie, meadow) 20th May to 18th June, spring-months; —
Messidor (moisson, harvest) 19th June to 18th July, Thermidor (therme,
warmth) 19th July to 17th Aug., and Fructidor (fruit, fruit) 18th Aug. to
16th Sept., summer months. — Each month had 30 days, and consisted of
3 decades, weeks being abolished. At the close of the year there were
5 jours compltmentaires, 17th to 21st Sept. — The republican calendar
was discontinued by a decree of 9th Sept., 1805.