House of Bourbon. — Henri IV. (1589-1610), first monarch of
the House of Bourbon, defeats the Roman Catholic League at Arques
in 1589 and at Ivry in 1590, becomes a Roman Catholic in 1593, and
captures Paris in 1594. Sully, his minister. Religious toleration
granted by the Edict of Nantes (1598). Henri, divorced from Mar¬
garet of Valois in 1599, marries Marie de Me'dicis the following
year; assassinated by Ravaillac in 1610. Paris greatly embellished
during this reign; the Pont Neuf finished and the Louvre enlarged.
Louis XIII. (i610-43), a feeble monarch, under the regency of
his mother, Marie de Me'dicis, and the influence of his favourites,
Concini and De Luynes, until 1624, when Richelieu (d. 1642) be¬
comes minister. English fleet defeated at Re, 1627; La Rochelle
taken from the Huguenots. France takes part in the Thirty Years'
War against Austria. The embellishment of Paris continued; new
bridges, quays, and streets constructed and the Jardin des Plantes
Louis XIV., le Grand (1643-1715), under the regency of his
mother, Anne of Austria. Ministers: Mazarin (d. 1661) ; Louvois
(d. 1691), who reorganized the military forces and established the
standing army; and Colbert (d. 1683), who reformed all branches of
the administration. Generals: Turenne (d. 1675), Conde (i. 1686),
Luxembourg (d. 1695).
War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Conde"
(Due d'Enghien) defeats the Spaniards at Rocroy in 1643, and at
Lens in Holland in 1648. Turenne defeats the Bavarians at Nord-
lingen, 1644. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) assigns Alsace to
France, with the exception of Strassburg and Montbeliard. Submis¬
sion of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, with Spain, 1659. Louis
marries Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV. of Spain, 1660.
Death of Mazarin, 1661. The king governs alone. After the
death of his father-in-law Louis lays claim to the Spanish Nether¬
lands. Turenne conquers Hainault and part of Flanders, 1667.
Conde' occupies the Franche Comti. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in
consequence of the Triple Alliance, 1668.
War with Holland, Passage of the Rhine, 1672. Occupation
of the provinces of Utrecht and Guelderland. Victories of Turenne
over the Imperial army in Alsace, 1674. Death of Turenne at
Admiral Duquesne defeats the Dutch fleet near Syracuse, 1676.
Marshal Luxembourg defeats William of Orange at Montcassel, 1677.
Peace of Nymwegen, 1687. Strassburg occupied, 1681. Occupation
of Luxembourg. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685. Devast¬
ation of the Palatinate, 1688. Marshal Luxembourg defeats the
Imperial troops at Fleurus (1690) and Steenkerke (1692), and Wil¬
liam of Orange at Neerwinden, 1693. Catinat defeats the Duke of
Savoy at Marsaglia, 1693. The French fleet under Admiral Tourville
defeatedbythe English ztLaHogue, 1692. Peace of Ryswyck, 1697.
Baedekks. Paris. lfith Edit. b