Charles VI. (1380-1422) becomes insane in 1392. The Flemings
defeated at Roslecque, 1382. Paris, like the rest of France, torn by
the factions of the Armagnacs. The French under the Constable
d'AIbret defeated by Henry V. of England at Agincourt, 1415.
Paris occupied by the English, 1421.
Charles VII. (1422-61). The siege of Orleans raised by Joan
of Arc, 1429. Coronation atRheims. Joan burned at Rouen, 1431.
Calais the only English possession in France.
Louis XI. (1461-83), after suppressing the Ligue du Bien Public,
succeeds in establishing the administrative and territorial unity of
the country. Burgundy, Franche-Comte", Artois, and Provence are
added to the French crown. Introduction of printing and establish¬
ment of a post-office.
^Charles VIH. (1483-98) acquires Brittany by his marriage with
Anne de Bretagne. Conquest of Naples, 1495. Paris scourged by
famine and plague.
Louis XII. (1498-1516), 'le pere du peuple', first king of the
younger branch of the House of Valois, conqueror of Milan and (in
alliance with the Spaniards) of Naples. Having quarrelled with his
Spanish allies, he is defeated by them on the Garigliano (1503), in
a battle in which Bayard takes part. The League of Cambrai is
formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main¬
land of Italy. The Venetians are defeated at Agnadello, 1509 ; but
they succeed in destroying the League, and defeat the French at
Francis I. (1515-47), of the second branch of the House of
Valois, defeats the Swiss at Marignano and recovers the Duchy of
Milan. Four wars with Charles V. for the possession of Burgundy
and Milan. Francis defeated and taken prisoner at Pavia, 1525.
The king was a patron of art and adorned and improved Paris. The
palace of the Louvre and the Hdtel de Ville were begun in this reign,
many new buildings erected, churches restored, and fortifications
Henri II. (1547-59), husband of Catherine de Medicis, accident¬
ally killed at a tournament (p. 186). Metz, Tonl, and Verdun
annexed to France, 1556. Final expulsion of the English.
Francis II. (1559-60), husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland.
Charles IX. (1560-74), brother of Francis II. Regency of
Catherine de Midicis, the king's mother. Beginning of the Religious
Wars. Louis de Conde", Antoine de Navarre, and Admiral Coligny,
leaders of the Huguenots; Francois de Guise and Charles de Lorraine
command the Roman Catholic army. Massacre of St. Bartholomew,
24th August, 1572. Building of the Tuileries.
Henri III. (1574-89), brother of his two predecessors; flies
from Paris, where a rebellion had broken out, by the advice of his
mother, Catherine de Me'dicis (d. 1588); assassinated at St. Cloud
by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar.