III. Outline of History.
The history "f Paris throughout is intimately involved with that of
France; and the following chronological sketch includes the chief historical
events mentioned in our description of the city.
At the time of the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar (B. C. 58-
51), the Parisii were a tribe settled on the banks of the Sequana or
Seine, and their chief village was Lutetia, situated on the present
island of La Cite. In course of time Lutetia gradually increased
in importance and became the occasional residence of several Ro¬
man emperors, among whom were Constantius Chlorus (293-306),
who built the palace of the Thermae, and Julian the Apostate (361-
363), who referred to it as his 'dear Lutetia'. Gratian was defeated
and slain by Maximus in the vicinity (383).
Christianity was introduced by St. Denis about 250 A.D.; and
in 360 a council was convened in the town under the name of
Parisea Civitas, whence the modern name is derived. — In the
4th cent. France was invaded by the Franks, the Burgundians, and
Visigoths; the Roman power collapsed; and feudalism began.
Merovingian Dynasty— Clovts I. (481-511). son of Childeric,
king of the Kipuarian Franks of Tournai, finally expelled Syagrius,
son of the last Roman governor, embraced Christianity, and united
all the Franks under the Merovingian Dynasty, which was so named
from Meroueus or Merwig, grandfather of Clovis. This dynasty,
however, rapidly degenerated, the Frankish kingdom was several
times divided, and a bitter rivalry arose between Austrasia, the king¬
dom of the E. Franks, and Neustria, that of the W. Franks. The
descendants of Pepin of Heristal, the chief nobles of Austrasia and
mayors of the palace in that kingdom and afterwards in Neustria and
Burgundy also, seized the supreme power. In 732 Charles Mattel
defeated the Saracens at Poitiers.
Carlovingian Dynasty. — Pbpin, le Bref (752-768), son of
Charles Martel, founded the second dynasty, the greatest member
of which was Charlemagne (768-814). Charlemagne warred suc¬
cessfully against the Saracens, the Longobards, the Saxons, and the
Avars, and was crowned emperor by the pope in 800. On the death
of his son Louis I., le Debonaire (814-rt40), his possessions were
divided by the Treaty of Verdun (843). France fell to Chaelbs II.,
le Chauve (840-877), while Louis the German became king of Ger¬
many, and Loth'iire received Italy, Burgundy, and Lorraine. Charles
le Chauve was succeeded by Louis II., le B'egue (877-879), Louis III.
and Carloman (879-8r->2). then by Carloman alone (882-894), all
of whom proved unable to defend their country against the incur¬
sions of the Normans. Charles III., le Gros, son of Louis the German
and German emperor, was invited in 884 to succeed Carloman. He,
however, left the defence of Paris to Count Odo, or Eudes, in whose
favour he was deposed in 887. Charles HI., le Simple f898-923).
son of Louis le Begue, succeeded Eudes and founded the duchy of