1 34 Route 10. MGWK.
several chapels. About halfway we see on a rocky eminence to the
left the ruins of a mediaeval castle, rising above the deserted vil¬
lage of Palaedchora, which in former centuries was the refuge of
the inhabitants of the island from the corsairs. But for the visits
of shepherds to the excellent spring the site is now quite undisturb¬
ed, except at the celebration of the annual 'Panegyris' in the Pa¬
nagia Chapel. The road next passes a chapel of St. Athanasius,
over the door of which is inserted an inscribed block of stone that
formerly served to mark the limit of the sacred precinct of Athena.
Thence we ascend to the ruins, situated on a summit, conspicuous
more on account of its comparative isolation than of its height.
The **Temple of Athena, long believed to be a shrine of Zeus
Panhellenios but now identified beyond dispute with the temple of
Athena mentioned by Herodotus, was a Doric peripteral, hexastyle
with 12 columns on each side. As in the Theseion, the pronaos
and posticum are distyle in antis. On each side in the interior of
the cella was a row of five more slender and more closely placed
columns, which, like the similar columns in the Parthenon, sup¬
ported the roof. Of the outer colonnade only 20 columns are
standing, mainly those of the E. facade and the adjacent parts of
the sides. They all retain their entablature. Two columns of the
pronaos are also still standing with their entablature. Travellers of
last century record that two other columns of the outer colonnade
were then standing, besides five in the interior, which now presents
nothing but a confused heap of ruins. The height of the columns
with their capitals is 17 ft. 5 in. ; their diameter at the base is 3 ft.
1 in. and at the top 2 ft. 3 in. The material of the temple is a
yellowish limestone, even yet partly covered with a uniform coating
of stucco. Some of the columns are monolithic, but most of them
consist of several drums; a few are strengthened with iron rings.
The roof and the sculptured ornaments were of Pentelic marble.
The irregular joints in the floor of the cella, the numerous subdivi¬
sions of the posticum, and the holes in the floor of the pronaos, in
which a railing was fastened, should be noticed. The sculptures
from the pediments of the temple, discovered among the rubbish
by some English and German travellers in 1811, were purchased in
the following year by the Crown Prince Lewis of Bavaria for 20,000
scudi (com. p. lxviii) and removed to Munich, where they now
form the chief treasure of the Glyptothek. Casts of some of them
are in the British Museum. They represent contests of the ^Egi-
netans with the Trojans. The edifice as a whole, as well as its sculp¬
tures, conveys an impression of considerable antiquity ; it certainly
cannot be more recent than the 6th cent. B.C. — Fine *View.
The hill upon which the temple stands descends on the N. side
sheer into a flat valley (Vagid), in which lie the chapels of St. De¬
metrius and Panagia sten Nesfda, the latter close to the sea. The
flat summit is enclosed partly by natural ridges of rock and partly by