124 Route 9. LIOPESI. Excursions
place it; both were dedicated to Nemesis, who is the only divinity known
to have been worshipped at Rhamnus. The statue of the goddess was
executed by Phidias or Agorakritos, and the block of white Parian marble
from which it was hewn is said to have been brought by the Persians for
a monument in commemoration of their expected victory.
From the terrace on which the temples stand we now descend to the
ancient fortified town of Rhamnus, the walls of which, half buried in a
luxuriant growth of evergreens, are still standing, at places almost in
their full height. The door-post of the great gateway still contains the
holes into which the bolts were shot. Rhamnus is seldom mentioned
in antiquity. Its modern name is Ovridkastro, a corruption of Ebraeo-
kastro, or Jewish town.
We may now return to the S., via (6 M.) the village of Kato-Souli, with
its conspicuous Turkish tower. A little on this side of the village and
on the low hill called Stavro-Kordki at the village itself, are a few ruins,
marking the site of the ancient deme of Trikorythos. About '^M. beyond
Kato-Souli, by the wayside, is a spring, known in ancient times as Ma-
karia. To the left extends the great marsh to the N. of the plain of Ma¬
rathon, which proved fatal to so many Persian fugitives. We take about
l'/ahr. to reach Marathon^from Kato-Souli, the route leading via Bii (p. 123).
i. Laurion and Cape Sunion.
40 M. Railway in 23/V3 his. (fares 7 fr. 35, 5 fr. 55 c.; return-ticket,
available on the day of issue only, 12 fr. 20, 8 fr. 30 c). — The interval
between the arrival of the first train at, and the departure of the last
from Laurion, affords time for a visit to Cape Sunion. Carriages are
generally in waiting at the railway-station of Laurion, but it is safer to
order one by telegraph (comp. p. 126).
From Athens (station, PI. D, 2) to (4>/2M.) Herakli, see p. 116.
The line to Laurion here diverges to the E., passes (7 M.) Cha-
landri (p. 118), on the depression between the Pentelikon (N.) and
the Hymettos (S.), and then turns to the S. From stat. Jeraka a
fine pine-wood extends to the slopes of the Pentelikon. Farther
on, to the left, stands a handsome modern chapel dedicated to
St. Nicholas. Adjacent is a white marble monument of a late period
of Greek art, consisting of a lion sitting on his haunches, with his
head turned towards the left. It stood on a square platform, now in
ruins. Beyond stat. Kantza we enter the Mesdgia (Me<s6-(aia, the
inland), an undulating district of hill and plain, stretching to the
spurs of Pentelikon on the N., to the Hymettos on the W., to the
vicinity of Markopoulo on the S., and to the coast-hills on the E.
15 M. Liopesi, a pleasant village with 1200 inhab., undoubt¬
edly occupying the site of the ancient deme of Paeania, the birth¬
place of Demosthenes. About 2y2 M. to the E. lies the village of
Spdta, where some interesting cave-tombs were brought to light in
1877. — 18y2 M. Koropi. The large village lies to the right, at
the base of the Pani or Hill of Pan (llavetov), the two highest peaks
of which are 2015 ft. and 2135 ft. high.)
22 M. Markopoulo, a village with 1400 inhab., situated on a
rising ground amid corn-fields and vineyards, also shows traces of
an ancient deme, the name of which has not been ascertained.
About 3 M. to the N.E. of Markopoulo lies Vradna, the ancient Brauron,
the seat of one of the principal sanctuaries of Artemis, which contained
the wooden image of t.be prnddess said to have been brought from Taui-is