Northern Delta. ROSETTA. 8. Route. 449
bank is Sindyun, with a handsome minaret. Opposite to it is Derut.
The angular pieces of wood at the top of the minarets are used for
bearing lamps on festive occasions. Numerous pumps are observed
on the banks. The next places on the left are Minyet-es-Sa'id and
Fezdr, and on the right Shemshir; then, on the left Adfineh, with
a palace erected by Sa'id Pasha, and on the right Metubis. Farther
towards the N., Dibeh lies a little to the left, and on the right are
Kuni, Minyet el-Murshid, and the important-looking little town of
Berimbdl. On the same bank are Teggdrin and the village of
Kasha, and opposite, to the left, is the town of Mahallet el-Emir,
crowned with two minarets. On the right we next observe Faras,
and on the left Shemdsmeh and El-Khimmdd; then, on the right,
El-Basreh, and on the left El-Gediyeh. The citadel of Rosetta
(Reshid), usually known as the Kal'a ('castle') next comes in sight.
Near it, also on the left, we observe a fine grove of palm-trees
rising close to the town, and the hill of Abu Mandur (see below).
Rosetta, Arabic Reshid (a Coptic name, Ti Rashit signify¬
ing 'city of joy'), the ancient Bolbitine, with 19,392 inhab.,
almost exclusively natives, lies at the mouth of the Bolbitinic arm
of the Nile, which was also called the Taly (TaXu). As the Rosetta
Stone (see below) was found near Fort St. Julien, 4 M. to the N.,
it is supposed that the ancient town lay in that neighbourhood.
— There is no inn at Rosetta, but, if necessary, the traveller may
apply for accommodation to the hospitable Franciscan monks.
History. Little is known regarding the early history of the town.
It was founded on the site of the ancient Bolbitine, and early in the
middle ages attained considerable mercantile importance. It continued
to flourish down to the beginning of the present century, but its prosperity
declined rapidly in consequence of the construction of the Mahmudiyeh
Canal and the improvement of the harbour of Alexandria. The rice
trade of Rosetta is of considerable importance, and shipbuilding is car¬
ried on with some success.
The town possesses numerous gardens, which yield excellent
fruit. Trie hill of Abu Mandur, to the S. of the town, which com¬
mands a fine view, is supposed by some topographers to have been
the site of the ancient Bolbitine. The interesting streets contain
many small, but substantial houses in a peculiar, half-European
style, with projecting stories and windows towards the outside.
Numerous columns from edifices of the heathen and Christian
periods, many of them of granite and some of marble, are seen
lying in various open spaces, particularly one of considerable size
near the river, and a number of others are built into the houses.
The very spacious Mosque of Sakhltin is embellished with many
ancient columns, but is otherwise uninteresting. The fortifications
to the N. of the town are not shown except by permission the
commandant. In 1799 M. Bouchard, a French captain of engineers,
discovered in Fort St. Julien the celebrated Rosetta Stone, which
afforded European scholars a key to the language and writing of the
ancient Egyptians, which had been lost for nearly 14 centuries.
Baedeker's Egypt I. 2nd Ed. 29