4. Route. 4U3
Pyramid (comp. p. 159), the lower slopes rising at an angle of 54" 41',
while the sides of the apex form an angle of 42° 59'. The whole pyramid
was probably originally intended to have the same slope as the apex (as
the sides of the neighbouring pyramid rise at an angle of 43° 36"), but
the lower part was never completed. This pyramid is 206l/2 yds. square
and 321 ft. in height. The interior was explored so early as the year
1660 by Mr. Melton, an English traveller. In 1860 M. Le Brun found a
small chamber in the interior. No clue to the name of the builder has
been discovered. On the extreme S. side of the plateau rises a brick
pyramid, 99 ft. in height, marking the S. extremity of the vast Necro¬
polis of Memphis, which extends down to Abu Roash (p. 370), towards
the N., a distance of 23 M. — From Dahshur to the Pyramid of Medum,
and to the Fayum, see R. 9.
Quarries of Tura and Baths of Helwan.
Railway to (14 M.) Helwan in 3\t-l hr. (fares 11 piastres 10, 7 piastres 20,
4 piastres 20 paras). The trains, of which there are four daily, start
from the new station in the Place Mehemet Ali. Another train starts
from the Central Station, passes the 'Abbasiyeh and the Cartridge Factory,
joins the first-mentioned line at Basatin, and reaches Helwan in l'/3 hr.
The railway to Helwan, which was constructed mainly for the
purpose of connecting the great military establishments at Tura
with the Citadel, runs from the Place Mehemet Ali, in a S.
direction. It skirts the base of the Mokattam, on the slopes of
which are the interesting ruins of a mosque, and traverses the
burial-ground of the Mamelukes (p. 327). To the right lies the
oldest part of Cairo, with the Mosque of Tulun (p. 265). On
the same side we next observe the Necropolis of Imam Shafe'i
(p. 327), beyond which is the valley of the Nile, with the various
groups of pyramids rising above it (p. 404).
Before reaching (4 M.) Basatin, a village situated in one of the
angles of a triangular piece of arable land which extends a con¬
siderable way into the desert, we perceive the Jewish burial-ground
on the left, and, farther on, the broad Wadi et-Tih (p. 339), which
separates the Mokattam range from the Gebel Tura. Traversing a
tract of desert sand, the line approaches the Nile, on which lies the
village of Tura. A little to the right are the large military estab¬
lishments and gunpowder mills. On the hill stand the ruins of
an old fort.
9t/2 M. Ma'sara, a village on the Nile, is noted for the slabs of
stone obtained in the neighbourhood, known as 'palattes', and used
for paving purposes in almost every house of the better class in
Egypt. From either Tura or Ma'sara we may visit the Quarries of
Tura (p. 405), which yielded material for the construction of the
ancient temples, and are still worked. Their entrances in the rocks
are visible from the railway. The ride thither occupies V2nr-i from
Helwan l1^ nr- I* ls advisable to bring good donkeys from Cairo,
as the choice at Helwan is very limited.
Beyond stat. Ma'sara the line skirts the slopes of the Gebel Tura,
and after ascending a considerable incline reaches the plateau on
which the Baths of Helwan are situated.