HISTORY OF ART.
the sanctuary were excavated in the rock. The larger temple of Abu
Simbel, on the other hand, including the pylons and the colossi, is
entirely excavated in the rock. During the Ptolemaean era other de¬
viations from the traditional types came into vogue. Differences in
XI. Ground Plan of the Grotto of Girgeh.
the forms of the capitals, in the ornamentation, and other details,
as well as a more arbitrary disposition of the temple arrangements
themselves, now clearly betray the invasion of Greek influences.
Several of these late buildings, entirely enclosed by columns,
with intervening walls rising to half the height of the columns,
or even higher, so strongly resemble the Greek peripteral temples
externally, that some internal similarity is involuntarily expected.
The probable object of some of these edifices, namely to serve as
enclos ures for sacred animals, proves them to be of purely Egyptian
origin; but, owing to the abnormal disposition of the different
members, it is difficult to conceive them to be products of purely
native art. Besides the temples in the island of Philae, the im¬
posing edifices of Edfu (Apollinopolis Magna), Kom Ombu (Ombos),
Esneh (Latopolis), Tentyris (Dendera), and Erment (Hermonthis),
afford ample opportunities for the study of the Ptolemaean style of
architecture, the impression produced by which is apt to procure
for Egyptian art a less favourable general verdict than it strictly
While the edifices dedicated to the service of the gods belong
exclusively to the period of the new empire, there still exist Mor¬
tuary Temples the origin of which may be traced back to the re¬
motest periods of the ancient empire. The oldest of these temples
are called Mastabas (comp. p. 379), and contained a chapel for the
celebration of sepulchral rites, as well as a tomb. The kings,
however, were not satisfied with a monument in which their
tombs and mortuary chapels were united, but adjacent to their
pyramids erected temples in which sacrifices were to be offered for
the welfare of their souls. The handsome pillar-structure of granite