52 THE MODERN EGYPTIANS. Turks.
slaves, and special officials are appointed to watch over their in¬
The negroes, who voluntarily settle in Egypt in considerable
numbers, form the dregs of the people and are employed in the most
menial offices. Most of the negro Taces of Central Africa to the N.
of the equator are represented at Cairo, particularly in the rank and
file of the negro regiments.
Ethnographers, linguists, or other scientific men who desire to see
specimens of as many different races as possible should obtain an intro¬
duction to an Arabian merchant in the Gameliyeh, who will conduct
them to merchants from every part of the interior and of the African
coast, each attended by his staff of negro servants. The latter, however,
especially if long resident in Egypt, cannot give trustworthy information
about their country and their origin. Some of them have forgotten their
mother tongue and even the name of their native country.
Foreigners are prohibited from taking negro servants out of the
country, but if through the intervention of their consul they obtain per¬
mission they must find security for their subsequent restoration.
(7). Turks. Although the dynasty of the viceroys of Egypt is
of Turkish origin (see p. 106), a comparatively small section of the
community belongs to that nation, and their numbers appear to be
diminishing. The Turks of Egypt are chiefly to be found in the towns,
where most of them are government officials, soldiers, and merchants.
The Turkish officials are much to blame for the maladministration
which so long paralysed the rich productiveness of the valley of the
Nile, having always with few exceptions been actuated in their pro¬
ceedings by motives of reckless cupidity without regard to ulterior con¬
sequences. Now, however, that the government of the Khedive has
adopted more enlightened principles, it has admitted other national¬
ities also to its highest civil appointments, some of which are held
by able Europeans, and under their auspices a brighter future is
probably in store for Egypt. The Turkish merchants are generally a
prosperous class, and, although fully alive to their pecuniary inter¬
ests, they are dignified and courteous in their bearing, and are
often remarkable for the handsomeness of their features.
(8). Levantines. A link between the various classes of dwellers
in Egypt and the visitors to the banks of the Nile is formed by the
members of the various Mediterranean races, known as Levantines,
who have been settled here for several generations, and form no in¬
considerable element in the population of the larger towns. Most of
them profess the Latin form of Christianity, and Arabic has now be¬
come their mother tongue, although they still speak their old national
dialects. They are apt linguists, learning the European languages with
great rapidity, and good men of business, and owing to these qua¬
lities they are often employed as shopmen and clerks. Their ser-
vicds have also become indispensable at the consulates as translators
of eocuments destined for the native authorities, and as bearers of
communications between the respective offices. A large proportion
of them are wealthy. Being Christians, the Levantines all live under
the protection of the different consuls, and thus unfairly escape