represented by consuls, that mixed tribunals should be appointed, consist¬
ing of courts of first and second instance, for the trial of all civil cases
arising between natives and foreigners, or between foreigners of different
nationalities, in accordance with Egyptian law, founded on that of
France and Italy. Cases in which the Khedive himself and the Egyptian
government are concerned are also tried before this new tribunal, so
that the system of appeals, formerly so much abused, is now done away
with. The courts of the first instance are at Alexandria and Cairo.
The judges consist of natives and foreigners, the latter being elected by
the Khedive out of the qualified officials nominated by the Great Powers.
The appeal court at Alexandria is constituted in the same manner.
Some of the judges of the first instance are also chosen from members
of the smaller European states. These courts enjoy a constitutional
guarantee for the independence of their jurisdiction, and, so far as
necessary, they execute their judgments by means of their own officers.
The languages used are Arabic, French, and Italian. From 1881 to 1884
the jurisdiction of these mixed tribunals was prolonged by the consent
of the Powers from year to year, and at the beginning of the latter year
it was agreed to continue it for another period of five years. — Besides
these new courts, the consular and local tribunals still continue to sub¬
sist, their jurisdiction being, however, limited to criminal cases and
to civil suits between foreigners of the same nationality, provided the
question does not affect land.
At the beginning of 1884 there was called into existence a new sy¬
stem of Native Courts, which take precedence of the mixed courts in de¬
ciding criminal cases between natives and foreigners. The general pro¬
cedure is based on the Code Napoleon. Courts of the first instance have
been, or are to be erected at Cairo, Alexandria, Tanta, Zakazik, Benha,
Beni Suef, Siut, and Kene, while the courts of appeal are at Cairo and
Siut. With the native judges are associated ten Belgians, two Dutch¬
men, and one Englishman. — A scheme is, however, on foot to appoint a
commission to extend to the mixed tribunals the criminal jurisdiction in
cases where different nationalities are engaged.
(5). Steamboats on the Mediterranean.
Alexandria, the chief seaport of Egypt, is regularly visited by
English, French, Austrian, Italian, Russian, Greek, and Egyptian
steamers. Whether the traveller returns westwards on leaving
Egypt, or intends to proceed to Syria or elsewhere, it is important
that he should be familiar with the principal steamboat services.
The time-tables of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co. may
be obtained in London at 122 Leadenhall St., E.C., or at 25 Cockspur St.,
S.W. Those who purpose including Syria, Greece, and Constantinople in
their Oriental tour should also, before leaving home, write to the
'•Administration des Services des Messageries Maritimes, 16 Rue Cannebiere,
Marseilles'1 for a '■Livret des Lignes de la Miditerrante et de la Mer Noire',
and to the ' Verwaltungsrath der Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft des Oester-
reich-Ungarischen Lloyd, Trieste' for '■Information for Passengers by the
Austrian Lloyd's Steam Navigation Company' (published in English). With
the aid of these time-tables, the traveller will have little difficulty in
making out his programme. See also '■Baedeker's Palestine and Syria'
(sold at the bookshops of Alexandria and Cairo).
In selecting a route the traveller must of course be guided by
circumstances and his own inclination. The shortest sea-voyage is
that from Brindisi, three days and a half; from Trieste (via, Corfu),
or from Venice (via. Ancona and Brindisi), five days; from Naples,
four days. The last-named route is perhaps the best for returning, as
the temperature of Naples and Rome forms a pleasant intermediary