11. LANGUAGE OF SWEDEN.
(in two), itu; downhill, nedad (Bakken); how, hvorledes ; little,
lidt; much, meget; no, nej; not, ikke; not at all, slet ikke; of
course, naturligvls ; only, kun; particularly, isar; partly, dels;
perhaps, kanske, maaske,- possibly, muligvis,- probably, rimeligvis;
quickly, hurtigt (fort); so, thus, saalcdes; softly (gently, slowly),
sagte; straight on, ligefrem; together, tilsammen; too (much, etc.),
for (meget, etc.); uphill, opad (Bakken); very, meget; why, hvor-
for; yes, ja, jo (the latter being used in answer to a question in
the negative or expressing doubt).
Prepositions. Among the most frequent are : —
About, om; above, over; after, efter,- among, blandt; at,/,
paa, ved; at (of time), om; behind, bag; between, mellern; by,
at the house of, hos; by, near, ved; by, past, forbi; during, om,
under ; for, in front of, for; from, fra ,- in, i; instead of, istedenfor;
near, nar, ved; of, from, af; on, paa; opposite, ligeoverfor; over,
upwards of, over; past, forbi; round, rundt om; since, siden:
through, gjennem; till, indtil (not till, ikke f0r); to, til; towards,
mod; under, under; upon, paa; with, med.
Conjunctions. The most important are : —
After, efterat; although, skj0ndt; and, og; as, da; as — as,
saa -— som; because, fordi; before, fer; but, men; either •— or,
enten — eller; for, thi; if, om, dersom, hvis; in order that, for at ,-
or, eller; since (causal), fordi, efterdi, (of time) siden; so, saa;
than, end; that, at; till, until, indtil; when (with past tense) da,
(with present or future) near; where, hvor; while, medens.
Interjections. Ah, alas, ok; indeed, ih, jasaa, virkelig; not
at all, far from it, don't mention it, langl ifra, ingen Aarsag; of
course, certainly, kors, bevars; pardon, om Forladelse; please,
var saa good, varsaaartig; thanks, Tak (many, mange); true, det
er sandt; what a pity, det er Synd!
II. Language of Sweden.
The remarks already made on the origin of the Danish language
and on the peculiarities of its pronunciation apply almost equally
to the Swedish language. The latter, however, is derived much
more purely and directly from the original Gothic tongue, and is
therefore much more interesting to philologists.
Articles. The Indefinite Article is (m. and f.) en, (n.) etl;
as en karl, a man; ett bam, a child.
The Definite Article is (m. or f.) en (or n after a vowel),
and (n.) et ox ett, affixed to the substantive; as konungen, the
king; flickan, the girl. Preceding an adjective, the definite article
is (m. or f.) den, (n.) det, (pi.) de,- but the substantive which fol¬
lows still retains its affix ; as den gode konungen, det lilla barnet
(the little child), de skiina ftickoma (the pretty girls).
Substantives. The genitive, both singular and plural, usually