I. LANGUAGE OF NORWAY.
the substantive, as Manden (the man). Darnel (the child), Kongeme
(the kings), (inardene (the farm-houses).
Substantives. All substantives are spelled with an initial capi¬
tal. The genitive, both singular and plural, usually ends in s, as
Kongens Mildhed (the king's clemency), Mcrndenes Heste (the men's
horses). All nouns ending in e form their plural by adding r, as
Kongc, -r, Kvinde, -r; others add er, as Btomsf, -er; others e, as
Hest, -e; and many neuter nouns remain unchanged in the plural,
as Sprog (language), Hus (house). Lastly, a number of substan¬
tives modify their radical vowel in the plural, as Haand (hand),
Haender, Fod (pron. oo; foot), Fodder, Bog (pron. o; book), Beger,
Ham (child), B0rn. In many cases the consonant is doubled in
order to preserve the short sound of the vowel, as Hal (hat), -te,
Ven (friend), -ner, (Jut (Norw., boy), -ter.
Adjectives. Those derived from proper names are not spelled
with initial capitals (as norsk, Norwegian ; engelsk, English). When
preceded by the indefinite article, the adjective remains unchanged
in the common gender , but t is added to it in the neuter, as en
god Hest, et stort (large) Hus; if, however, the adjective terminates
in e, o, m, or y, it remains unchanged in both genders, as en lille
Hest, et lille Barn, en sky (shy) Hest, et bly (shy) Burn ,- but ny
(new) has the neuter nyt. When preceded by the definite article,
and in the plural whether with or without article, adjectives have
an e added, unless they terminate in e, o, u or y ; as den gode Hest,
det store Hus , de smukke smaa B0rn (the pretty little children),
nakre (contracted from vakker -e) Fjorde (beautiful bays). When
standing alone after the substantive as a predicate the adjective
usually agrees with the substantive in gender and number, as
Huset er (is) stort, Hestene er store.
The Comparative and Superlative are formed by adding re
or ej-e and rt or est to the positive ; as glad (glad), gladere, gladest ,-
rig (rich), rigere, rigest; but in some cases they are formed by
prefixing mer and mist to the positive, as elsket (beloved), mer
elsket, mest elsket. The radical vowel is sometimes modified ; as
stor, sterre, sl0rst; faa (few), fcerre, fcerrest. Several adjectives
arc irregularly compared: god, bedre, bedst,- ond (bad), vierrc,
vivrst; gammel (old), aldre, aldst; lille (small), mindre, mindst ;
megen, meget (much), mer, mest; mange (many), flerc, fleste.
Numerals. The Cardinal Numbers are : en or een (n. et), to,
Ire, fire, fern, sex, syv, ottc, ni, ti, elleve, tolv, tretten, fjorten,
fcmten, sexten, syttcn, atten, nitten, tyve (twenty); en og tyve, to
og tyve, etc.; treti (tredive); firti (fyrretyve), femti (or halvtresind-
styve, i. e. 'halfway between twice and three times twenty', or
'thrice twenty all but a half of twenty'; the word used in Den¬
mark, and often contracted to halvtres), sexti (tresindstyve, or tres),
sytti (halvfjersindstyve, or halvfjers), otti (firsindstyve, or firs), nitti
(halvfemsindstyve, or halrfems), hundrede, tusinde.