I. LANGUAGE OF NORWAY.
been introduced more from fashion than necessity, and words of
purely native growth are to be found in every branch of art and
science. The following lines by Norwegian poets may be quoted
here as a specimen of the modern language common to Norway
and Denmark: —
'Min norske Vinter er saa vakker: Ja! herligt er mit Fudeland,
De hvide snebedsekte Bakker Den gamle klippefaste Norge
Og grjzrcme Gran med pudret Haar Med Sommerdal og Vinterborge,
Og trofast Is paa dybe Vande Der evig trodser Tidens Tand.
Og Engledragt paa n#gne Strande Om Kloden rokkes end, dets Fjelde
Jeg bytter neppe mod en Vaar'. Skal Stormen dog ej kunne fselde".
J. N. Brun. S. 0. Wolff.
Literal translation: Yes! glorious is my native land,
My Norwegian winter is so beauti- the ancient cliff-bound Norway, with
ful: the white, snow-clad hills, and summer valley and winter fastness,
green pines with powdered hair, and which ever defies the tooth of time.
stedfast ice on deep lakes, and angel- Even if the globebeshaken, the storm
garb on barren shores, I would hardly shall be unable to overthrow its
exchange for spring. mountains.
A knowledge of the language of the country will conduce ma¬
terially to the traveller's comfort and enjoyment. English is spoken
at the principal resorts of travellers and by the captains of most of
the steamboats, but on the less frequented routes and particularly
at the small country-stations the native tongue alone is understood.
The traveller should therefore endeavour to learn some of the most
useful and everyday phrases which he is likely to require on his
journey. Those who are already acquainted with German or Dutch
will find the language exceedingly easy and interesting, as the
great majority of the words of which each of these languages con¬
sists are derived from the same Gothic stock as Danish. A still
higher vantage-ground is possessed by those who have studied Ice¬
landic, or even the kindred Anglo-Saxon, the former being the
direct ancestor of the language of Norway. Those, on the other
hand, who are tolerably proficient in Swedish, will understand and
be understood with little difficulty in Norway, though much less
readily in Denmark. Conversely, the traveller who has learned
Danish with the Norwegian accent will generally And it intelligible
to Swedes, and will himself understand Swedish fairly well; but
Danish acquired in Denmark will be found very unsatisfactory in
Norway and still more so in Sweden.
The traveller who takes an interest in the language, which
throws light on many English words, and particularly on English
and Scotch provincialisms, should be provided both with an Eng¬
lish-Danish (Rosing's, 3rd edit. ; Copenhagen, 1869) and Danish-
English dictionary (Ferrall 4'Repp's, 3rd edit. ; Copenhagen, 1867),
and with Ivar Aasen's copious and instructive 'Norsk Ordbog' (2nd
edit., Christiania, 1873). Rask's Grammar, Fradersdorff's Practi¬
cal Introduction, and Bojesen's Guide are also recommended to the
notice of students of Danish. For the use of ordinary travellers,