History. CHRISTIANIA. 1. Route. 3
Toldbodbrygge, the Feestningsbrygge, or the Jernbanebrygge (PL D, E, 7).
— Small steamers ply from the Jernbanebrygge to Moss, Horlen, Fred-
rikstad, Fredrikshald, T0nsberg, and the islands in the Bundefjord; and
also from the Pipervik (PL A, B, 8) to Fredriksborg on the Ladegaards0,
once or oftener daily, affording pleasant excursions. — For these, besides
a number of other steamers to places on the fjord, Drammen, etc., see
Small Boats may be hired of the ■Foergemcend'1 on the Pipervik and
at the Baadforening by the fortress for 1 kr. 20 0. per hour. An excursion
may be made by boat to the Hovede, with its scanty monastery ruins,
to visit which (strictly speaking) permission from the commandant of
the fortress is required (p. 11).
English Church Service in the Festsal of the University, S.E. wing.
Resident chaplain (Rev. Austin West).
Principal Attractions. View from St. Hanshaugen, about 1 Engl. M.
to the N. of the Storthings Building (see p. 6). Walk or drive from the
0stbanegaard across the Jernbane-Torv, and through the Karl-Johans-Gade,
passing the Storthings Building (p. 6) on the left and the University (p. 7)
on the right, to the Slot, or Palace (p. 10). Museum of Sculptures and
National Gallery (p. 8). Excursion to Oscarshall (p. 10).
Christiania, the capital of Norway, with 77,000 inhab. (almost
exclusively Protestants), beautifully situated at the N. end of the
Christiania Fjord and on the W. bank of the small Akers-Elv, in
59° 54' N. lat. and 10° 50' E. long., was founded by Christian IV.
in 1624 on the plain to the N. of the fortress of Akershus, and
named after him, being intended as a substitute for the older town
of Oslo, on the E. bank of the stream, which had been almost entirely
burned down in that year. Oslo, founded by Harald Hardraade about
the year 1050, afterwards became a depot of the Hanseatic League
and the capital of Norway, but was burned down by its inhabitants
in 1567 to prevent its falling into the hands of Swedish besiegers,
and was again destroyed in 1624. It once possessed a richly endowed
cathedral, dedicated to St. Halvard, where several of the Norwegian
kings were interred, and where James I. of England married Anne
of Denmark in 1589.
Christiania is the seat of government and of the supreme court
of Norway, and the headquarters of the Storthing or parliament. It
also boasts of a University, containing several scientific collections,
a National Picture Gallery, an Observatory, a Royal Palace, and a
number of charitable and other institutions. The chief exports are
timber, fish, beer, and various manufactured goods , and the im¬
ports wheat, wine, etc., the former being valued at about 12, and
the latter at 27 million kroner per annum. The town now possesses
about 190 vessels, of an aggregate burden of 55,000 tons, about a
dozen of which are steamers, of an aggregate burden of about 1600
tons. In the neighbourhood are several considerable engine-works,
breweries, cotton-mills, and paper-manufactories, most of which
lie on the Akers-Elv.
Owing to its comparatively recent origin, as well as to destructive
fires by which it was visited in 1686, 1708, and 1858, Christiania
now presents a substantial modern appearance, most of the old
timber-built houses having disappeared. Beyond the beauty of the